Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture

Last registered on September 19, 2022

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0010009
Initial registration date
September 18, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
September 19, 2022, 4:05 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Locations

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Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Trinity College Dublin

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Trinity College Dublin
PI Affiliation
Stockholm University
PI Affiliation
Stockholm University
PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation
BRAC International

Additional Trial Information

Status
On going
Start date
2022-04-01
End date
2024-06-01
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
Evidence suggests that the yield on land cultivated by women in Sub-Saharan Africa is lower than that on land cultivated by men. On average, women are less likely to use new technologies or inputs, but the reasons behind this are unclear. In this project, we will investigate one potential explanation behind the gender gap in agricultural productivity: that women may lack the necessary skills required to access new technologies and inputs that in turn enable productive investments. We will cooperate with an NGO (BRAC) in Uganda. We will evaluate a new program that provides training in soft skills to female farmers. We will also study the effect of disseminating information about composting technology that enables farmers to improve the productivity of their land while improving environmental sustainability. We will investigate whether female farmers are less likely to use composting (as found in previous literature for other technological innovations) and whether the gap between the sexes is smaller for women who have received the soft skills training. The experiment will shed light on the extent to which the lack of soft skills limit the use of new agricultural technologies among women (relative to men) and whether the NGO’s program can help reduce any gender differences. The project's findings will help design policies that empower female farmers and increase their productivity.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Gulesci, Selim et al. 2022. "Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture." AEA RCT Registry. September 19. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.10009-1.0
Sponsors & Partners

Sponsors

Partner

Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
We study two types of interventions:

A) Soft skills' training: the training promotes a proactive mindset and entrepreneurial behavior, by improving the intra-personal and inter-personal socio-emotional skills of the participants. The soft skills' training consists of two modules:
1. The intra-personal skills' module focuses on grit, self-efficacy, and confidence building.
2. The inter-personal skills' module entails a greater emphasis on communication, negotiation and cultivating empathy.

B) Information and training on composting: Farmers will be informed about the benefits of organic composting and trained in its use. This includes information on its cost-effectiveness (e.g., using readily available farm waste rejuvenates the soil and improves farm productivity) and its environmental impact (e.g., abandoning the practice of burning organic waste will reduce pollution levels).
Intervention Start Date
2022-08-01
Intervention End Date
2022-12-31

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Labor and capital inputs used, crops cultivated, techniques and practices adopted, and output and yield obtained from each of the plots managed by the farmers; as well as plots managed by other members of the farmers' households.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Farmers' soft skills, labor supply and employment characteristics, asset holdings, consumption expenditures, savings, loans, transfer, happiness and psychological well-being, domestic violence.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
To evaluate the effects of the intervention(s), we first conduct a community mapping to select the study participants within the study villages. Among the selected communities, we identify 3,386 smallholder farmers (2631 women and 755 men) aged 18-45 to be part of the study.

After the baseline survey has been implemented, we randomize the sample of farmers into the following 8 groups:

1. T1A: 324 female farmers receive intrapersonal skills training only.
2. T2A: 326 female farmers receive interpersonal skills training only.
3. T3A: 321 female farmers receive intrapersonal + interpersonal skills training.
4. T1B: 316 female farmers receive intrapersonal skills + composting training.
5. T2B: 317 female farmers receive interpersonal skills + composting training.
6. T3B: 321 female farmers receive intrapersonal + interpersonal skills + composting training.
7. Control A: 326 female and 380 male farmers receive no training.
8. Control B: 380 female and 375 male farmers receive composting training only.

The randomization is conducted at the individual level, stratified by village, gender and age of the farmer.

The within female-comparisons assess the differential impact of inter- and/or intra-personal skills on technology take up and productivity among female farmers. The inclusion of male farmers allows us to measure how improved female soft skills affect the gender gap in the same two dimensions, in addition to capturing the effect of the composting training among male farmers.

Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
The randomization is conducted in researchers' office, on a computer. Participants are informed privately of their treatment status.
Randomization Unit
Individuals
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
2631 female farmers and 755 male farmers.
Sample size: planned number of observations
2631 female farmers and 755 male farmers.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
1. T1A: 324 female farmers receive intrapersonal skills training only.
2. T2A: 326 female farmers receive interpersonal skills training only.
3. T3A: 321 female farmers receive intrapersonal + interpersonal skills training.
4. T1B: 316 female farmers receive intrapersonal skills + composting training.
5. T2B: 317 female farmers receive interpersonal skills + composting training.
6. T3B: 321 female farmers receive intrapersonal + interpersonal skills + composting training.
7. Control A: 326 female and 380 male farmers receive no training.
8. Control B: 380 female and 375 male farmers receive composting training only.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Mildmay Uganda research Ethics Committee (MUREC)
IRB Approval Date
2022-03-11
IRB Approval Number
#REC REF 0301-2022