Primary Outcomes (end points)
The larger RCT embeds three different interventions. The outcome variables hypothesized to be affected partially differ for the three different interventions.
In terms of methodology, outcome variables to be collected can be grouped under the following categories: 1) Outcomes measured by incentivized behavioral tasks, 2) Outcomes measured by self-reports, 3) Outcomes measured by objective tests administered by the research team, 4) Administrative data (e.g. school grades, behavioral conduct), 5) Data coming from teacher surveys.
Below are the primary outcomes associated with each intervention.
Intervention 1 (Cooperation): Primary outcome measures are cooperative behavior, in-group and out-group altruism, beliefs about/attitudes toward out-groups (over gender and refugee status), friendship networks, willingness to compete and gender differences therein, classroom cohesion level, behavioral conduct at school, learning outcomes from the coding program, performance in math, behavior in groups (leadership, power).
Intervention 2 (Competition): Primary outcome measures are willingness to compete and gender differences therein, beliefs about/attitudes towards out-groups, friendship networks (over gender), learning outcomes from the coding program, performance in math, gender-related behavior in groups (leadership, power).
Intervention 3 (Individual Coding): Cognitive skills, algorithmic thinking, strategic thinking, performance in math, creativity, self-confidence in math, occupational/STEM aspirations, learning outcomes from the coding program.
Details of these measurements, several of which will involve the design of novel behavioral tasks, are to be provided in the pre-analysis plans for each intervention.