Gender, competitiveness and reaction to defeat

Last registered on February 27, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Gender, competitiveness and reaction to defeat
Initial registration date
October 11, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 17, 2022, 5:36 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
February 27, 2023, 8:35 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

Nanterre Université

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Nanterre Université
PI Affiliation
Copenhagen University
PI Affiliation
Universitat Jaume I (Valencia)

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
In this study, we use a lab experiment to investigate individuals’ reaction after a defeat. In a
first stage, subjects complete a math task and decide on their payment scheme (piece-rate vs
tournament). Subjects observe the result of the competition and decide whether they want to
compete again. A novelty of our design is that we use strategy elicitation method by providing
a sequence of potential points gap. Our research seeks to elicit men’s and women’s behaviors
in a repeated competition context. Our results show that men are more willing to re-enter the
competition with a larger point gap when being defeated by a female opponent, compared to
when they loose against their male counterparts. On the other hand, women are indifferent to
the gender of their opponent when deciding to compete again.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Mollier, Claire et al. 2023. "Gender, competitiveness and reaction to defeat." AEA RCT Registry. February 27.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The key outcome variables are the decision to compete (enter into the tournament) which depends on the gender of the opponent and the switching point in this entry, which depends on the point gap with the opponent.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Our design reproduces the design used in Niederle and Vesterlund (2007) where subjects have to add up a set of five two-digit numbers. At first, subjects have to perform according to a piece rate payment scheme: they are paid 0.50€ for each correct answer. Then, they perform under a tournament payment scheme: they can earn 1.50€ for each problem solved if they have more correct answers than their randomly chosen opponent. After this stage, they have the choice between these two options of payment. Those who refused to compete (chose the piece rate payment scheme) are analyzed separately. At Stage 4, participants who chose the tournament payment scheme will have to choose if they want to compete again, against the same opponent, for hypothetical points gap.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
The randomization will be made in the laboratory, by randomly assigning participants to a computer.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
300 participants
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
3 treatments (Men vs Men, Women vs Women, Men vs Women)
100 participants per treatment
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Université Paris Nanterre
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials