Early life exposure to gender biases: parents' stereotypes and domain-specific performance in schools

Last registered on March 24, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Early life exposure to gender biases: parents' stereotypes and domain-specific performance in schools
Initial registration date
December 15, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
January 03, 2023, 4:24 PM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
March 24, 2023, 1:39 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

UC Berkeley

Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Early exposure to gender biases starts at early life stages (0-3 years) in households, where parents' educational encouragement and allocation of resources can differ depending on their children's gender.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Martinez, Joan. 2023. "Early life exposure to gender biases: parents' stereotypes and domain-specific performance in schools." AEA RCT Registry. March 24. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.10643-1.1
Experimental Details


I will send information to parents about gender biases, and students' achievements per parents' bias intensity and examine to what extent it changes the short-run outcomes. In the long run, I will measure improvements in intra-household resource allocation, domain-specific school performance, graduation, and college applications.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
In the short run, I will to evaluate explicit gender attitudes, implicit gender attitudes and intra-household time allocation for their children. In the long-run I will to evaluate test scores (domain-specific), graduation, college applications.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
First, I will collect the students' baseline grades from the beginning of the school term, parents' gender attitudes, and other baseline characteristics. Next, the treatment will be assigned following a two-stage randomization: at the school level and to households within schools. Finally, I will gather information on the outcomes.
Experimental Design Details
I will potentially address the spillover effects of the information randomizing the saturation levels per school.
Randomization Method
Randomization was done in the office on a computer.
Randomization Unit
I have two levels of randomization: (1) Schools and (2) Households.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
70 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
8500 households
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Control schools (30); Treated schools (40). 1,275 households will receive domain-specific children achievement gap; 1,275 households will receive rank-based children achievement gap; and 1,700 households will receive both. 4,250 are control households.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials