Parent Study (a representative sample of Norwegian daycare)

Last registered on May 24, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Parent Study (a representative sample of Norwegian daycare)
Initial registration date
May 19, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 24, 2023, 1:51 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


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Primary Investigator

IIES, Stockholm University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Chr. Michelsen Institute
PI Affiliation
Chr. Michelsen Institute
PI Affiliation
Chr. Michelsen Institute
PI Affiliation
University of Chile

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
A significant fraction of governmental programs, welfare arrangements, and cash transfer programs target women.
In matters related to children, most countries have a long tradition of targeting mothers. For example, in Norway, the
child benefits are automatically paid to mothers and 90% of the recipients are mothers. The main reasoning behind
policies that target mothers is that they promote gender equality, empower women, increase investments in
children, and improve child welfare. This can be formalized into two arguments; (i) the maternal argument states
that women are more likely to spend money on goods and services that benefit children than men are, and (ii) the
empowerment argument states that targeting women will increase their control over resources in the household and
therefore empower them.
The empirical evidence on how targeted transfers affect household allocations and child outcomes is still limited,
and we know very little about the mechanisms that generate any such impacts. The aim of this project is to start to
close this gap in the literature by advancing on the measurements, providing novel evidence on the effect of targeted
transfer policies on household resource allocation, and study underlying mechanisms, in a comparative study in ten
countries. To do so, we will develop, harmonize and validate measures that can be used in different contexts to
elicit effects on children of targeting mothers. Using these
improved measurement techniques will allow us to understand whether the maternal and empowerment arguments
are valid, and if so in which contexts, offering innovative insights and significant results that will be important for
science and policy.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Almas, Ingvild et al. 2023. "Parent Study (a representative sample of Norwegian daycare) ." AEA RCT Registry. May 24.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The main outcome of interest is how parents allocate 1700 NOK (approx. 172 USD) between
different categories of household expenditures.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
The primary objective of this project is to develop, validate and implement a survey instrument to acquire novel
scientific knowledge on how gender-targeted transfers impact household resource allocation. The aim is that this
survey instrument will not only be useful for the implementation of this project, but also for future research projects
and policy analyses that search for evidence on gender targeting in different contexts.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
The project will identify mechanisms behind any effects from targeted transfers to child welfare and women's empowerment, and
heterogeneous effects such as differences across socioeconomic groups. Overall, the project will contribute
significantly to the scientific literature on household decision-making and women's empowerment, and the results
will be of great importance to actors concerned with increasing child welfare and promoting gender equality.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Not currently available for public.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Computerized program.
Randomization Unit
We have drawn a national representative sample of 160 day-care centers, covering approx. 6000 children. Among the parents who consent to take part in the study, we will randomize whether the survey link is sent to the mother or the father of the child/children.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
160 day-care centers.
Sample size: planned number of observations
5760 parents.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
1152 parents incentivized, 4608 hypothetical.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
0.2 St. Dev., with 80% power, significance level of 5% and intra-cluster correlation of 0.1.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number