Arriving in Argentina: A Field Experiment With Football Clubs

Last registered on February 26, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Arriving in Argentina: A Field Experiment With Football Clubs
Initial registration date
February 10, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
February 13, 2023, 10:43 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
February 26, 2023, 4:36 PM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

Institute of Social and Economic Research - Osaka University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Zurich
PI Affiliation
University of Zurich

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
We run an audit study on amateur football - soccer - clubs in Argentina to test for discrimination against immigrants. We will send an email with similar text, except for the name and the origin of the fictitious applicant.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Clochard, Gwen-Jiro, Helmut Dietl and Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez. 2023. "Arriving in Argentina: A Field Experiment With Football Clubs." AEA RCT Registry. February 26.
Experimental Details


Randomly send information about the origin of the applicant.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Positive response rate
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
There are 4 potential outcomes: 1) no response, 2) negative response, 3) response with additional questions (in what position did the applicant play, at what level, etc) or 4) a positive response (invitation to training). We will code the outcome variable as 1 for the categories 3 and 4, and 0 for categories 1 and 2.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
All the clubs in the sample will receive one and only one email. The content of the email will in large part be similar for all clubs (see Appendix \ref{subsec: email text}), with the exception of certain details, which will be randomly varied.

In particular, the main distinction is whether the fictitious applicant is coming from Argentina or a foreign country. The sample will be evenly split between Argentinian and foreign applicants.

Foreign applicants will be from the countries with the highest counts of immigration, according to the last available census data in Argentina. The countries from which the immigrants come from will be: 4 countries for Latin America, 4 countries in Europe and and 4 countries in Asia.

For every country, we used census data (or the best available information) to get the two most common first (male and female) and last names for children born around the year 2000. For Argentina, we will use the five most common names.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
The treatment will be block randomized by province.
Randomization Unit
Club level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
1200 male clubs and 600 female clubs
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
900 control (Argentinian names), 900 treatment (foreign name). Within the 900 treatment, 75 (50 male and 25 female) emails will be sent from each country.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
0.17 standard deviation

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Human Subjects Committee of the Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Information Technology
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents


MD5: e7cdf0dd7d204167979fe469367379cf

SHA1: 4e52a4a9857e76e1cb99015cbc8e5728503d4c6a

Uploaded At: February 10, 2023


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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials