The demand for digital identification amongst small enterprise owners in Uganda

Last registered on March 15, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

The demand for digital identification amongst small enterprise owners in Uganda
Initial registration date
March 05, 2024

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
March 15, 2024, 3:12 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


Primary Investigator

Evans School, University of Washington

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Michigan

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Informality hinders firm profitability and growth in a variety of ways, including limiting firms to suppliers in their social networks due to issues of trust and fraud. Digital IDs offer potential paths to increasing formality, such as by allowing the verification of identities and the authentication of signed contracts, thus helping businesses to sign contracts with new suppliers with lower prices or a better selection of goods. However, there is no research to date examining the demand for a digital ID and verified authentication services among business owners. We would plug this evidence gap by asking 1) what is the willingness of micro, small and medium enterprises in Kampala to pay for the new UGPass digital ID and how does this depend on whether contracting is highlighted as a benefit and sign-up assistance provided; and 2) does the provision of UGPass lead businesses to be more likely to write contracts?
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Cohen, Isabelle and Emma Riley. 2024. "The demand for digital identification amongst small enterprise owners in Uganda." AEA RCT Registry. March 15.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Supplier network index
2. Business profit (self-reported value of business profits earned in the last 30 days)
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
The supplier network index will be constructed from the following components:
a. Whether the business has explored finding alternate suppliers
b. Number of suppliers
c. Number of new suppliers in last three months
d. Share of suppliers located non-locally (not within the respondent’s neighbourhood)
e. Share of suppliers who are not friends or family
f. Whether purchases from suppliers are made on credit
g. Value of outstanding payments owed to suppliers

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Our secondary outcomes will include six outcome families:
1. UGPass uptake and usage
2. Business contracting outcomes
3. Business other network outcomes
4. Business management outcomes
5. Business growth outcomes
6. Business formalization outcomes (conditional on access to administrative data)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Our experiment will involve a combination of:
1) Randomly varying the purchase price of the UGPass digital ID in the context of a willingness to pay experiment, including some respondents who will receive the product for free, and
2) Randomizing information on the benefits of UGPass for contracting.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
2,500 individuals
Sample size: planned number of observations
2,500 individuals
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Cross-randomization between contracting information and zero price for UGPass, balanced 50-50 (meaning 1,250 in treatment and control for each treatment)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
University of Washington Human Subjects Division
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents

Pre-Registration Report

MD5: 62d48bc1682f00d847442adefd744ecd

SHA1: a0f26e31a19f6b21210e846bbdbe84f1d4591cfb

Uploaded At: March 05, 2024