Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Mental health outcomes include standard measures of anxiety, depression, and loneliness, as well as beneficial traits such as self-control (which is linked to mindfulness), and grit. Specifically, we plan to incorporate the GAD-7 and MFQ to measure anxiety and depression respectively, as well as the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Grit Scale, and the Domain-Specific Impulsivity Scale for Children (DSIS-C). These are all widely used questionnaires for measuring mental health and have been tested extensively among adolescents and in development contexts. In addition, we include questions intended to measure subjective well being, empathy, motivation, classroom behavior, students’ relationships with their peers, parents, and teachers, and their social networks. Our surveys will also include brief measures of academic abilities, implementing leading Indian education NGO Pratham’s ASER evaluation of math and language, as well as Raven’s matrices to test cognitive skills. Survey questions were refined following piloting in April 2023. We will complement our surveys with administrative data on student academic outcomes. We will look at test scores and grades in other subjects to measure the aggregate impact on learning, as well as teacher reports of attendance.