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Stigma and Labor Supply

Last registered on March 13, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Stigma and Labor Supply
Initial registration date
March 04, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
March 13, 2023, 8:47 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


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Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Perceptions of discrimination and of one's own identity can affect how jobseekers behave. We outline a 3-stage labor market experiment in a Brazilian slum (where home address is a stigma, a mark used to discriminate) to understand how jobseekers behave in the labor market in response to changes the salience of their stigma.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Angeli, Deivis, Ieda Matavelli and Fernando Secco. 2023. "Stigma and Labor Supply." AEA RCT Registry. March 13.
Sponsors & Partners


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Experimental Details


We designed a three-stage experiment. In stage 1, surveyors will perform a door-to-door survey with favela residents and ask questions about their socioeconomic characteristics and previous work experiences. During the survey, participants will be asked if they want to share their information with an HR firm (composed of the research team members), which will send them real job ads from our partner. The participants will also perform a skill test and share their beliefs and attitudes about address-based discrimination.

In stage 2, one to eight days after a jobseeker answers the survey from stage 1, the HR firm contacts that person via WhatsApp with an invitation to apply for a set of real full-time sales jobs. Applicants can then fill out an application form. We randomize whether applicants need to disclose their home address to apply, manipulating whether they can expect to suffer address-based discrimination or not.

In stage 3, we invite eligible jobseekers for an interview. Before the interview, with objectivity as the pretext, the receptionist either tells candidates that the interviewer knows their name only or their name and address.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
In stage 2:
- Completing the job application form
- Showing up for the Interview

- Effort in application form: Length and quality of the text the jobseeker wrote about themselves when applying for the job.

- Strategic information disclosure: declaring or omitting information on jobs and courses taken in the favela, inflating the duration of job experiences.
- Share of individuals misrepresenting their addresses when applying to the job (not an outcome per se, but an important descriptive statistic).

Outcomes in stage 3:
- Overall interview performance
- Nervousness as assessed by the interviewer and self-assessed
- Formality/professionalism, as assessed by the interviewer and self-assessed.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Stage 2:
- Clicking the job application form.
- Perceptions about the job-search process and interactions with firms after the stage-2 treatment (collected in phone survey, see below)

Stage 3:
- Self-assessed interview performance
- Specific behaviors during interview, that could signal stress or discomfort
- Information disclosure during interview
- Question-wise performance in interview
- Interviewee’s perceptions about the interviewer (professionalism, preparedness) and HR firm (inclusiveness).
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
We will conduct a quality-check + brief survey over the phone with those participating in stage 2, about ten days after they receive the job invite message. This will try to confirm information provided during the door-to-door survey (to assure participation requirements are being enforced), and will also briefly ask about how the jobseeker’s search has progressed.

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The design is mainly explained together with the intervention description.

For stage-2 treatments, stage 1 respondents are randomized into one of the three treatment groups with equal probability. We will stratify the randomization by predicted discrimination.

For stage 3, those who completed the job application form are randomized into the two treatments with equal probability. We will stratify the randomization by predicted discrimination and stage-2 treatment status.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done by a computer. Randomization will proceed in batches every few days, since all stages overlap.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
2500 participants
Sample size: planned number of observations
2500 participants
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Stage 2: 833 participants in each arm.
Stage 3: 350 interviewees in each arm, assuming a 35% application rate and 85% interview show-up rate.

Sample sizes are target values and are subject to budget constraints.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
MDEs for 80% of power at 5% size. Pairwise comparisons of main stage-2 outcomes: - about 6pp (18%), with covariate adjustment (gauged from pilot), for application and show-up rate - 0.14 standard deviation for effort measure Address Omission vs. other arms pooled: - 5.4pp for application and show-up rate - 0.12 standard deviation for effort measure Effort measures: 0-10 subjective scale outcomes in stage 3: 0.2 standard deviations

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number