Last registered on April 05, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Initial registration date
April 01, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
April 05, 2023, 4:50 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

University of Calabar

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Calabar
PI Affiliation
University of Calabar
PI Affiliation
University of Calabar
PI Affiliation
University of Calabar

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Today, child abuse, child trafficking, child kidnapping, child labour, child prostitution, early child marriage among others are some of the setbacks of children in Contemporary Developing Countries and African Societies in particular. In Traditional African Societies, children were viewed as a resource to both the family and the community at large. This perception made the process of child upbringing and socialization an important African value owed to each child by both parents and members of the extended family. The traditional African values ensured that the family catered for the intellectual, social, physical and emotional needs of the child. Lauras-Lecoh (1990) maintained that the family played the role of meeting the needs of family members as well as ensuring equal distribution of community resources. However, with the influence of new cultures, poor governance, corruption and rapid socioeconomic changes in Africa particularly after independence, traditional African values have changed drastically and, in some cases, completely eroded. This change has affected child upbringing in Africa. The influence of these changes is also visible in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as well as the Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21. Notable was the 1989 convention on the Rights of the child (CRC; United Nations 1989) which shifted access to children from their parents. This shift made children according to Pence et al (2008) become visible as individuals in their own rights. The big question is, "was Africa and the African child ready for this?" UNICEF (2018) revealed that 9 out of every 10 adolescents and young people between the ages of 10-24 were faced with challenging conditions in developing countries. These conditions, which are caused by many factors such as poverty, poor welfare, death of parents, abuse, being accused of witchcraft amongst others has forced children into the streets in search of livelihood (STREETISM). The term streetism in this study refers to the group of homeless families and children living on the streets in urban cities moving from place to place in search of livelihood. Unfortunately, the street has nothing to offer other than further hardship, which leads them to begging, prostituting, crime and other numerous social vices. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods will be adopted and 300 street children will be used as follows; Millennium Park 60, Calabar central refuse dump, Lemna 60, Native delicacies, restaurant 60, DE choice fast food off Mary Slessor Avenue 60, Former MacBite, Calabar road 60. Cluster sampling techniques and reliance on available cases will be among the sampling methgmail.comods adopted. The study will also identify other popular cultural activities available in Cross River State and Nigeria as a whole and then equally identify stakeholders involved in talent hunt for popular cultural activities. It will then portray the probable need to embark on talent hunt programmes among street and gang children as a means of providing them with the identity, family life, security and emotional support they desire and eventually leave the streets. This study will address some of the targets of the SDGs and funding this research will afford TETFUND the opportunity of addressing streetism as a means of strengthening our Tertiary educational sector, because some of the robberies and crimes committed in, and around tertiary institutions are traceable to street children.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Experimental Details


1.Research team planning meeting : A planning meeting of the research team was held on January 2, 2022 to look at the project, roles, budget and work plan. Responsibilities were shared to team members as follows
A.Project officer - Mrs. Agatha Egbe-John
B.Training and workshop Coordination - Dr. Veronica Odey & Dr. Edisua Merab Yta
C.Monitoring and Evaluation - Dr. Gloria Bassey Igri Okon
The project work was planned in line with the realities on ground (See annexes 1 and 2). The team met again on January 5, 2022 to select stakeholders, carry out some consultations and write letters of invitation for the Stakeholders sensitization workshop. The project officers commenced the distribution of letters on January 20 and completed distributions on January 25, 2022.
2.Preliminary study : A preliminary study was carried out on the current state of street children in Calabar metropolis. The activity commenced on January 7, 2022 and lasted for a week. The findings from the preliminary research were presented during the conference.
3.Conference attendance and paper presentation : The Lead researcher attended a visual conference of “Faculty of Arts/ Humanities Scholars’ Association of Nigerian Universities (FAHSANU) 4th International ZOOM Conference 2022 hosted by the University of Calabar - Theme: Arts/Humanities and Critical thinking amid Covid-19 pandemic, January 25 - 27, 2022 and presented a paper titled “Critical Thinking : Bias and Prejudice in the control and eradication of Streetism”. the paper has been accepted for publication (see annex 6)
4.Stakeholders meeting : A meeting with stakeholders in the entertainment industry was held on February 1, 2022. Stakeholders in the carnival commission, Carnival bands, Designers, Script writers, hair dressers, Costume designers, makeup artists were sensitized on the objectives of the project and so were able to key into the project. The team continued further consultations with other stakeholders ahead of the mini carnival. Discussions with the mini carnival team commenced on February 8, 2022 and is on going. The carnival team consists of one Director, one Scriptwriter, 3 Choreographers and six field assistants. Others are Costume designers, Makeup artists and food vendors
5.Workshop training for team members on their roles and the methodology of the project took place on February 11, 2022. This was to ensure that everything went according to plan. Visitations to the street children camps commenced on February 12, 2022 and was concluded on February 22, 2022
6.Training of facilitators and other field assistants: The training took place on march 1, 2022. The training was on the processes for the pretest and post test research. The objectives and the steps to follow were also discussed in order to determine the preexisting subjects. The facilitators also visited some of the street children clusters to familiarize themselves with the environment. The visitation was necessary because street children clustered were controlled by a leader and deputy leader who must be consulted before reaching out to the children. The first phase of consultations commenced on March 8, 2022 and ended on March 20,2022. The next phase of consultation commenced on March 25 and ended on March 30, 2022, the findings are being collated.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1.5 street children trained as Dance Section Leaders
2.150 street children trained directly as dancers and makeup artists from five cluster locations
3.Over 1000 street children and families reached indirectly
4.Over 20 policy makers in the Entertainment industry, Carnival commission, Carnival bands, Eateries, and Banks sensitized on involving street children in talent hunt
5.15 Carnival dance groups produced and integrated into Carnival bands
6.More than one journal article written.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

1.The Carnival dance groups formed will serve as a baseline with a potential for high positive impact on the transformation and general wellbeing of the street children in Cross River State.
2.150 street children in the Calabar metropolis of Cross River State will acquire new knowledge and skills on Carnival dance, make up, hairdressing for Carnival dance festivals and other popular cultural activities within and outside the state. Based on proper engagement with relevant stakeholders and continuous mentoring and monitoring of participants, the new knowledge and skills gained will be developed and enhanced for their individual good and that of the society at large.
3.Increased street children capacity and skills in dance, make up, hairdressing and other activities and continuous practice of these skills acquired, will develop in them the desire to become choreographers, makeup artists, dance directors, script writers as well as producers for Carnival dance festivals. They can even become facilitators in the end.
4.Dance routines produced during the carnival dance festival will be used to interpret carnival themes during the Carnival Calabar festival.
5.Increased awareness amongst stakeholders in the entertainment industries on the need to involve street children in talent hunts.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The research will take the form of a quasi-experimental + factorial design and will use the Dance festival methodology. It will be a modification of pre-test post- test control design. It will explore a mix of traditional and non-traditional methods and will include the following activities, sensitization workshop, dance auditioning, carnival dance evaluation, integration of dance groups into carnival bands and journal article publication.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
This study will use the Cluster sampling technique. In addition, the geographical cluster will be applied; the entire population will then be divided into different clusters. Firstly, the researcher will select the clusters. Then the available resources for the study will be allocated to the randomly selected clusters.
Randomization Unit
Each cluster made up of 60 participants.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
A sample size of 300 Street children will be selected from 5 cluster locations. 60 children from each location. 150 street children for experimental and 150 street children for control
The data collected for analysis will be categorized into four kinds: The first will concern the various talent hunts available in the entertainment industries. The second will identify the different clusters of street families and street children in the metropolis. The third will involve the street gangs and their daily activities and the fourth will cover the various talents discovered in the street children.
The main aim of cluster sampling is specifically to reduce cost and increase the levels of efficiency sampling. See cluster size below:
1. Millennium Park - 60
2. Calabar central refuse dump, Lemna - 60
3.Native delicacies, restaurant. - 60
4.DE choice fast food off Mary Slessor Avenue. - 60
5.Former Mcbite Calabar road. - 60
Total - 300 (Experimental group 150, Control group 150)
Sample size: planned number of observations
300 Street children
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
150 Control
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
University of Calabar Directorate of Research Review Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials