Effect of Social Norms and Framing on Sustainable Agriculture Practices

Last registered on May 24, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Effect of Social Norms and Framing on Sustainable Agriculture Practices
Initial registration date
May 21, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 24, 2023, 4:45 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

University of Passau

Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial is based on or builds upon one or more prior RCTs.
The agriculture sector is a significant contributor to Indonesia's GDP and provides employment for over 38 million people, but it also causes environmental issues. Promoting sustainable farming practices among farmers is crucial for environmental conservation, but their adoption has been slow. While previous studies have identified barriers, they may not fully explain the complexity of farmers' decision-making processes. This study aims to explore the effect of social norms and framing on Indonesian farmers' stated intentions to adopt sustainable farming practices, with the goal of developing a non-monetary approach to agri-environmental policy. The study will use a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of providing social information and framing on farmers' willingness to adopt sustainable practices, such as the use of organic fertilizers and avoiding pesticides. The experiment will be conducted through an in-survey experiment involving 1,104 farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The findings of the study can help to promote the adoption of sustainable practices, reduce reliance on costly incentives and subsidies, and benefit both farmers and the environment.

External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Septiani, Mardha Tilla. 2023. "Effect of Social Norms and Framing on Sustainable Agriculture Practices." AEA RCT Registry. May 24. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.11416-1.0
Experimental Details



Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
- Farmers' stated intention to increase the use of organic fertilizer
- Farmers' stated intention to decrease the use of chemical pesticides

These outcomes will be measured on a scale of 1 to 5:
1 - Strongly decrease
2 - Slightly decrease
3 - No change
4 - Slightly increase
5 - Strongly increase
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
A randomized controlled trial will be conducted in Indonesia, with a focus on three districts within the Yogyakarta province, which are Sleman, Bantul, and Kulon Progo. The study participants consist of around 1,104 farmers from 69 villages who will be randomly assigned to three groups at the individual level, namely 1 control group and 2 treatment group. I will provide treatment group 1 and group 2 with social information about farmers' behavior on the use of organic fertilizer and chemical pesticide. For treatment group 1, the social information will be framed positively, while social information for treatment group 2 will be framed negatively. Afterwards, they will be asked about their intention on adopting sustainable agriculture practice after knowing the social information. On the other hand, the control group will be asked the same questions without any positive or negative framing of social information.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Stratified randomization done by a computer.
Randomization Unit
The samples are randomized at the individual level.

This study is an in-survey experiment, a part of a larger project on Sustainable Soil Management that evaluates whether offering farmers training on soil nutrient management and access to affordable soil tests can encourage a shift towards a more sustainable agricultural practice. The randomization will be stratified based on the training group in the main project to address potential bias from confounding variables, such as receiving training sessions on soil health management and soil testing.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
69 villages
Sample size: planned number of observations
1104 farmers
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
368 farmers in each treatment group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials