Gender and Perceptions of Signal Quality

Last registered on May 24, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Gender and Perceptions of Signal Quality
Initial registration date
May 20, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 24, 2023, 4:45 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
I will study how individuals update their beliefs in response to information shared by men and women.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Litwin, Ashley. 2023. "Gender and Perceptions of Signal Quality." AEA RCT Registry. May 24.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Posterior beliefs about a realized, but unknown, outcome.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
I will conduct a laboratory experiment to understand how individuals use group identity to infer information quality.
Experimental Design Details
In the main experiment, I will ask subjects to estimate the ex post likelihood that a coin flip resulted in a specific realization. Prior to making this assessment, the subject will be (1) told that the prior probability of the realization is 50%, (2) shown a binary signal (positive or negative) based on the realized outcome from either an advantaged or disadvantaged group at random, and (3) (in one arm) told that signals from the "advantaged" group (men) are equally informative as signals from the "disadvantaged" group (women). All signals are informative, such that Bayesian subjects who receive positive signals believe it is more likely that the specific realization occurred, while those who receive negative signals believe it is less likely. The main outcome of interest is how posterior beliefs vary as a function of the gender of the signal-sender.

Additional treatment variations include: whether the decision environment is male-typical or more gender neutral, whether subjects receive precise or imprecise information on how informative signals are, and whether subjects know or do not know that information shared by men and women is equally informative.

In addition to analyzing aggregate differences in posterior beliefs following a male or female signal, I will also explore heterogeneity by subject characteristics, including gender, race, age, education, and political affiliation.
Randomization Method
Randomization will be done by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
3,200 - 6,400
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
100 - 200
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
University of Pennsylvania IRB
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials