U.S. Landmark Names Study

Last registered on July 19, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

U.S. Landmark Names Study
Initial registration date
July 07, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
July 19, 2023, 11:57 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information

Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
How does the proliferation of Native American representation impact local culture and attitudes towards Native Americans? Theories of cultural exposure suggest that more interactions with unfamiliar cultures can, under the right conditions, lead to increased tolerance. Existing evidence suggests that, in several contexts, direct contact with diverse people can change people's preferences and beliefs. However, much of the representation of Native American people and culture in the United States has been appropriated by Euro-American people and influences. This project seeks to understand how the presence of Native American representation, and the degree to which the representation is authentic or appropriated, affects attitudes towards and beliefs about Native Americans.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Fleischman, Gabriella. 2023. "U.S. Landmark Names Study." AEA RCT Registry. July 19. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.11742-1.0
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Attitude towards Native American sovereignty; Attitude towards US-Native American treaties; Attitude towards appropriation of Native American representation
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Attitudes towards Native American Sovereignty: sum of six Likert scale questions about support for Native American sovereignty
Attitudes towards US-Native American Treaties: sum of three Likert scale questions about support for the U.S. abiding by treaties with Native American tribes
Attitudes towards appropriation of Native American representation: sum of five Likert scale questions about the acceptability of non-Native people using Native imagery (for example, is it acceptable for a non-Native person to dress as a Native American for Halloween).
Likert scale quantified by: strongly disagree = -2, disagree = -1, neutral = 0, agree = 1, strongly agree = 2

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Beliefs about Native American representation in United States government; Beliefs about Native American representation in the U.S. population
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Respondents will guess the percentage identifying with racial categories of U.S. citizens, citizens within their own state, representatives in the U.S. Congress, and representatives in their state senate.

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Participants will take a 15-minute survey with an embedded randomization that will place participants into one of three groups. Each group will receive an information and priming treatment. Respondents will first enter demographic information, information about their education and childhood experiences, and answer a few questions that ask their beliefs about the origin of three place names in the United States. After the treatment, respondents will answer questions about their beliefs and views. Participants will: 1) guess the percentage of U.S. and their state populations that identifies in each racial group; and 2) guess the number of representatives in federal and their state government that identify in each racial group. Participants will then answer questions about their support for policies and activism concerning Native Americans, including the use of Native imagery and names in sports team mascots and other forms of representation, support for Native American sovereignty, and support for the U.S. abiding by treaties with Native American tribes.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization embedded in Qualtrics at the start of survey
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
1,000 individuals
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,000 individuals
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
333 Control; 333 Treatment 1; 334 Treatment 2
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Committee on the Use of Human Subjects Harvard University
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number