Improving Childcare Quality Through Social Franchising

Last registered on April 18, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

Improving Childcare Quality Through Social Franchising
Initial registration date
July 07, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
July 19, 2023, 11:59 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
April 18, 2024, 6:29 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.


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Primary Investigator

The Ohio State University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Villanova University
PI Affiliation
University of Vermont Montpelier

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
In this paper, we provide experimental evidence on the effect of improving childcare quality on prices and profits of childcare providers, as well as the effects on families and children. Specifically, we partner with Kidogo, a social enterprise that provides training and mentorship to daycare providers. We randomize the entry of Kidogo into 30 low-income, urban communities of Kenya, leaving 30 communities as comparison. We then analyze the effect of their entry with detailed surveys of approximately 2000 providers. The main outcome measures are the price, quality, profits, and availability of childcare 6 months, and 12 months, and 24 months after entry. We pair that data with 2,100 surveys of families with small children in the same communities to examine the effect of improving childcare quality on household labor force participation, use of daycare, and children’s cognitive development.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Beam, Emily, Anne Fitzpatrick and Maira Reimao. 2024. "Improving Childcare Quality Through Social Franchising." AEA RCT Registry. April 18.
Sponsors & Partners


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Experimental Details


Kidogo provides support and mentorship for women operating childcare centers. Interested "mamapreneurs" participate in a 3 month training program, and receive ongoing mentorship and support intended to help them improve their quality and grow their business.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Childcare facility quality; Prices of childcare; Number of children present; Labor force participation of mothers; Parents’ use of childcare; children’s development
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Number of childcare providers; Profits of daycare providers; Pride and empowerment of daycare providers
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We will conduct this study in communities across six cities in Kenya: Kajiado, Kiambu, Kisumu, Nairobi, Mombasa, and Nakuru. Within each city, Kidogo will identify 60 communities into which they are planning to expand; all communities are sections of informal settlements. We will then randomly assign Kidogo to enter 30 communities; the remaining communities will serve as the control group.
Within each community, at baseline we will conduct a mapping exercise of all providers within the communities (N 2,022). For each provider found during the mapping, we will conduct a short baseline survey in which we collect provider demographics, opinions on their role of childcare providers, firm operations, and record observations of the facility quality. We anticipate a sample size of roughly 3,600 providers: among home-based and centre-based daycares, we will survey the provider, while in school-based daycares we will interview the school director as well as classroom teachers that provide daycare or playgroup.
Following the baseline survey, Kidogo will conduct the 3-month intervention in treatment communities. Approximately 6 and 12 months after the end of the intervention, we will collect follow-up data on the impacts of Kidogo. During the final follow-up round, we will also randomly sample 2,100 households with at least one child under 6 to determine the impacts of Kidogo for families.
Due to the timing of the planned expansion of Kidogo, we will conduct this evaluation in two “phases”. During the first phase, we will randomly assign 15 communities to receive treatment (and 15 control). During the second phase, we will randomly assign a different set of 15 communities to receive treatment (and 15 control). The first round will occur 2023–2024; The second round will occur approximately one year later (2024–2025).
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
We will randomize communities using a Stata program
Randomization Unit
Our unit of randomization is the community-level. A community is an area within an informal settlement.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
60 total
Sample size: planned number of observations
2,003 daycare providers and 2,100 households
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
We plan to split the sample equally between treatment and control.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Strathmore University
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number