The study evaluates five designs for scaling teacher incentive contracts. These are based on a core design "Model A", with each of four variations changing one dimension of the design at a time.
The base design, Model A, incentivizes teachers based on "Five Ps": Presence, Preparation, Pedagogy, Participation in CAMIS, and Pupil Learning. Presence and preparation are measured by Sector Education Inspectors (SEIs) during unannounced visits, with the latter referring to the completion of lesson plans. Pedagogy is measured by SEIs during an announced visit, using the Government of Rwanda's structured classroom observation procedure. Participation in CAMIS refers to the use of the Comprehensive Assessment Management Information System to record end-of-term marks for students on the Comprehensive Assessment, and is observed using the CAMIS database itself. Finally, pupil learning is defined as learning outcomes relative to others of similar baseline achievement levels (Barlevy and Neal, 2012) using the end-of-year Comprehensive Assessment in each year as the basis for learning assessment. Audits of 5 percent of pupils' recorded exam scores, using paper records in schools, will be used to enforce fidelity of the exam system. Teachers are ranked within districts on each metric, and the teacher's evaluation score is a weighted average of these components, with measures of teacher inputs comprising 50 percent of the total weight, and the pupil learning metric comprising the remaining 50 percent. Teacher payoffs are a linear function of their percentile rank on this composite metric, ranging from zero to five percent of salary.
The four variations modify this design as follows: Variation B1 adds head teachers' subjective assessment of teachers' activities to the set of "input" measures. Variation B2 provides termly feedback on the performance score, using end-of-term Comprehensive Assessment data to produce projected learning growth measures. Variation B3 replaces the linear payoff function with a three-tiered, stepwise function that provides no bonus to those below the 25th percentile, a bonus of 3 percent of salary to those between the 25th and 75th percentile, and a bonus of 5 percent to those in the top quartile. Variation B4 augments the audit scheme by retesting 5 percent of pupils.