School Based Programming Lean Impact Evaluation - Burundi

Last registered on September 12, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

School Based Programming Lean Impact Evaluation - Burundi
Initial registration date
August 30, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
September 04, 2023, 6:46 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
September 12, 2023, 4:19 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
World Food Programme
PI Affiliation
World Food Programme
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Food Programme
PI Affiliation
World Bank

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
This lean impact evaluation in Burundi evaluates a new decentralized school feeding procurement model based on Commodity Voucher (CV) compared to the preexisting centralized procurement model being piloted by the World Food Programme (WFP). The preexisting model involves WFP procuring food internationally and delivering it to schools through implementing partners, while the new model involves a more decentralized approach with WFP transferring funds to the Direction Provinciale de l'Education (DPE), which purchases from local cooperatives that deliver food directly to schools. The study uses a randomized controlled trial design to assess the impact of the new procurement method on service delivery and will provide evidence of its efficiency and reliability to inform the scaling up of the home-grown school feeding procurement model. The study uses administrative data, monthly head teacher surveys, and a round of farmer and cooperative surveys to measure descriptive impacts.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Heirman, Jonas et al. 2023. "School Based Programming Lean Impact Evaluation - Burundi." AEA RCT Registry. September 12.
Sponsors & Partners

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information
Experimental Details


In Burundi, the World Food Programme (WFP), in partnership with the Government of Burundi, provides daily nutritious meals and snacks to over 660,000 school children (331572 girls and 331570 boys) in May 2022 in 873 schools through its Home-Grown School Feeding programme (HGSF). Currently, Burundi WFP Country Office’s (CO) school feeding model is based on a centralised procurement model, where WFP procures food mostly internationally and delivers it to schools. The meals comprise a combination of imported and local food such as cereals, beans and peas and parents contribute to food preparation on a rotational basis.

Starting in 2022, the Burundi CO is piloting a new decentralised school feeding procurement modality based on cash transfers to schools. Under this new Commodity Voucher (CV) procurement model the WFP will make a transfer to the Direction Provinciale de l'Education (DPE), which will purchase from local cooperatives, and cooperatives will deliver food directly to schools.

This lean impact evaluation (IE) will use a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design to assess whether the CV procurement model impacts the performance of meal distribution by schools (e.g., quantity, diversity, quality of meals). It will also compare quantities of food procured across the two treatment models and provide descriptive evidence of the efficiency and reliability of the new procurement system.

The lean IE will also include a pilot survey with cooperatives and farmers to measure productivity, revenues, and profits from farming, and a pilot survey with school children to measure individual diet diversity, meal satisfaction, school performance and cognitive ability. However, the cooperative outcomes are not evaluated experimentally because the scale of the programme and the number of available cooperatives is small. Instead, the results from the pilot survey will inform the feasibility and design of a larger scale IE with the aim to assess the impact of HGSF on farmers' income and children's learning, health, and nutritional outcomes during scale-up.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Service delivery; Food procurement; App experience (school connect);
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Service delivery (food) examines the outcomes related to the quantity, the meal diversity and the quality of school meals.

Food procurement: CV procurement model will lead to increased school meals distributed to children. This will be explored in terms of school feeding days and quantities of food distributed in school meals.

Sales and local economy Qualitative interviews of cooperatives, NGOs, and governments will be conducted to supplement quantitative analysis. This exercise aims to understand their perceptions and experience of the CV model to document any operational challenges in the process of local procurement; including but not limited to logistics, storage, quality of produce, payments; and solutions from different stakeholders involved in the project.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The design is a randomization at the school level of the 95 schools uniquely mapped to 12 cooperatives provided by the WFP Burundi Country Office in the study. All pilot schools were in three provinces of Burundi (Bujumbura rural, Bubanza and Muyinga).
Experimental Design Details
Of the 95 schools, the lean IE uses stratified randomisation where cooperatives are used as strata and 50 schools were then randomly assigned to the treatment group and 45 to control. This corresponds to 23 treatment schools in Muyinga, 3 treatments schools in Bujumbura Rural and 24 treatment schools in Bubanza.
Randomization Method
The sampling and randomization were conducted using Stata software.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
17 strata (provinces and cooperatives)
Sample size: planned number of observations
95 schools are sampled from the three provinces.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Treatment: 50 schools mapped to 12 cooperatives in the three provinces

Control: 45 schools receiving meals from the centralized model with WFP CO.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Power calculation is conducted using two sources of administrative data: COMET (Country Office Monitoring and Evaluation Tool) and School Connect platform. It focusses on the following key outcomes and indicators: School meal delivery: the number of feeding days Food procurement: the amount of beans and corn-soy blends delivered to schools Children’s education: student enrolment and attendance. The MDE of this IE considers 80% power and a significance level of 5%. On average, schools distributed meals to students 7.28 days per month in 2021-2022. The IE design can detect an increase of 3.75 days, and it is believed that the new CV model has the potential to generate differences as big as 3.75 days per month as while this would be 50% of the control mean, this would be 17% out of the 21 school days in a month. WFP delivered 443 kgs of beans and 1252 kgs of corn-soy blends per school term during 2020-2022. The IE can detect an increase of 208kgs for beans and 287kgs for corn-soy blends (respectively 48% and 23% of the control mean). While these are significant changes, it is believed that the new CV model should be able to support such changes due to the current import ban on cereals. Finally, on average schools had 749 students enrolled in each school in 2021-2022 and the attendance rate during this period was approximately 80% (i.e., 591 students on average). The study design can detect an average increase of 157 students enrolled per school and 24 percentage points difference for attendance rate (i.e 183 students). The MDE for attendance is bigger than that of enrolment because attendance data has a higher standard deviation.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Solutions IRB
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials