Stereotype Threat and Group Work

Last registered on October 04, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Stereotype Threat and Group Work
Initial registration date
September 25, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 04, 2023, 1:56 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Pennsylvania

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
While the bulk of existing research on stereotype threat predominantly examines its effects on individual performance, limited attention has been given to understanding its potential influence on group dynamics and collaborative efforts. To address this gap, this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to explore the impact of a stereotype threat intervention within the context of an Economics class, with a specific focus on enhancing the performance of female students, their confidence and sense of belonging. The intervention aims to counteract stereotype threat by providing an information-based intervention that emphasizes a prevailing belief: the majority of individuals believe that female-identifying students perform at the same level as others in Economics.

The study employs a two-layer randomization strategy. In the initial layer, participants are subjected to random assignment, placing them either in the intervention group, which receives a randomized information treatment at the end of the baseline survey, or in the control group. Subsequently, in the second layer, participants are organized into small teams, typically comprising 3-4 members, to facilitate collaborative group work activities. Consequently, these groups will exhibit varying proportions of individuals who have undergone the treatment. The dual randomization process allows us to evaluate the causal impact of the intervention, both at the individual level and within the context of group performance.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Darova, Ornella and Anne Duchene. 2023. "Stereotype Threat and Group Work." AEA RCT Registry. October 04.
Experimental Details


The participants are students in an introductory class of Microeconomics in a private university. They are administered a survey. Half of them are randomised into a survey that offers as its conclusion an information treatment that aims to contrast stereotype threat by revealing other students' beliefs: female-identifying students perform just as well as the other students in Economics. The other half does not get this message in the survey. Students are then randomised in small groups and are assigned group tasks for their class.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
- Individual performance, confidence, sense of belonging;
- Group performance, group collaboration, conflicts, workload distribution, leadership.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
In our randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the impact of a stereotype threat intervention on group work in Economics education, we implement a two-layer randomization strategy.

- First Layer: Qualtrics Randomization. In the first layer of randomization, we utilize Qualtrics, a widely recognized online survey platform, to assign participants to either the intervention group or the control group. This initial randomization process is executed with a 50% chance of being allocated to each group, ensuring a balanced distribution of participants.
- Second Layer: Group Formation Randomization. Following the first layer of randomization, participants are grouped into small teams consisting of 3-4 members each. The grouping process is conducted randomly through an algorithm on R.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
First layer: Qualtrics randomization;
Second layer: R randomization algorithm.
Randomization Unit
First layer: individuals are randomly assigned to either treatment or control group.
Second layer: individuals are randomly assigned to groups which will end up having different intensities of the treatment.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
First layer: 326 units treatment, 326 units control
Second layer: continuous treatment (proportion of treated by group, with 166 groups total).
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
University of Pennsylvania Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials