Self-medication under Uncertainty: Consumer Beliefs about Drug Quality in Burkina Faso

Last registered on December 01, 2023

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Self-medication under Uncertainty: Consumer Beliefs about Drug Quality in Burkina Faso
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0012524
Initial registration date
November 17, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
December 01, 2023, 4:48 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Locations

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Primary Investigator

Affiliation
University of Goettingen

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé
PI Affiliation
Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé
PI Affiliation
Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé
PI Affiliation
German Institute for Global and Area Studies

Additional Trial Information

Status
On going
Start date
2023-02-01
End date
2024-03-31
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
In many countries, access to affordable, quality-assured, and effective medicine is constrained by inadequate regulation, poor supply chain management, and weak gatekeeping, resulting in the proliferation of substandard or falsified (SF) products. In the absence of access to quality health care and with drugs available over-the-counter (OTC, without prescription), consumers often resort to self-medication to a range of health problems. Self-medication is associated with an overuse of antibiotics, which in turn is a driver of the spread of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria. In this study, we aim to better understand self-medication with antibiotics in a low-income setting. The study is conducted in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. It covers 400 households across six randomly selected neighborhoods (arrondissements). We conduct experiments on the extent to which consumers are aware of the risk of poor-quality antibiotics in the market, the extent to which they are able to infer quality, and the extent to which decisions regarding self-medication are influenced by the probability of low-quality quality drugs circulating in the market. We complement our study with data from laboratory testing of antibiotics.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Hartwig, Renate et al. 2023. "Self-medication under Uncertainty: Consumer Beliefs about Drug Quality in Burkina Faso." AEA RCT Registry. December 01. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.12524-1.0
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
The study comprises of a household survey accompanied by three experiments. In Experiment 1, we elicit subjects believes of the probability of buying a poor-quality antibiotic in the market. In Experiment 2, we elicit the extent to which subjects are able to correctly identify a poor-quality antibiotic with varying information. We vary information on the vendor, the price, and the country of origin (manufacturer). In Experiment 3 we elicit the extent to which subjects prefer to self-medicate varying the disease environment and the probability of poor-quality medicine circulating in the market.
Intervention Start Date
2023-11-07
Intervention End Date
2023-11-30

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Primary outcomes are:
I) Subjective prevalence of poor-quality medicine – an indicator of the perceived probability of poor-quality medicine circulating the market (continuous)
II) Detection – (a) an indicator of the correct detection of poor-quality medicine (binary), (b) score of the correct detection cases (continuous)
III) Self-medication – an indicator of self-medication (binary)
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The study comprises of a household survey accompanied by three experiments. In Experiment 1, we elicit subjects believes of the probability of buying a poor-quality antibiotic in the market. In Experiment 2, we elicit the extent to which subjects are able to correctly identify a poor-quality antibiotic with varying information. We vary information on the vendor, the price, and the country of origin (manufacturer). In Experiment 3 we elicit the extent to which subjects prefer to self-medicate varying the disease environment and the probability of poor-quality medicine circulating in the market.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
The random assignment was done by the PIs with a replicable procedure using statistical software (R).
Randomization Unit
Individual
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
N.A.
Sample size: planned number of observations
We plan with a sample of 400 randomly selected households, across six randomly selected neighborhoods (arrondissements) of Ouagadougou. Within each of our experiments we play various rounds. Hence, the total sample for Experiment 1 is 400 (400x1), for Experiment 2 it 1,200 (400 x 3) and for Experiment 3 it is 2,000 (400 x 5).
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
400
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Ministere de la Sante et de l’Hygiene Public/Ministere de l’Enseignement Superieur, de la Recherche et de l’Innovation, Comite d’Ethique pour la Recherche en Sante
IRB Approval Date
2023-04-24
IRB Approval Number
2023-04-080
Analysis Plan

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