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Distance Learning for Marginalized Girls in Ghana
Last registered on June 27, 2014


Trial Information
General Information
Distance Learning for Marginalized Girls in Ghana
Initial registration date
Not yet registered
Last updated
June 27, 2014 4:09 PM EDT
Primary Investigator
Mathematica Policy Research
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Additional Trial Information
On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Recent efforts to increase primary school education enrollment in developing countries have been very successful, yet major challenges persist in improving the quality of educational outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, high drop out rates, especially for girls, as well as student and teacher absenteeism are major impediments to learning. Many students, especially low-income children in rural areas, miss so much school due to family obligations that they become chronic repeaters. This study assesses the impact of a program that aims to improve student retention and the learning outcomes for marginalized pupils in Ghana through distance learning and an after-school girls’ empowerment program.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Ksoll, Christopher. 2014. "Distance Learning for Marginalized Girls in Ghana." AEA RCT Registry. June 27. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.128-1.0.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
The Making Ghana Girls Great (MGCubed) program, implemented by the Global Education Management System (GEMS), is based on the premise that diminished learning time, due to high rates of teacher and student absenteeism, contributes to low learning levels, and that a lack of female role models contributes to a high drop out rate for girls.

The program introduces distance learning and after-school girls club called the Wonder Women, both led by facilitators from the community, most of them female. Researchers will evaluate the impact of the distance learning program and the after-school program on learning outcomes. The program targets marginalized boys and girls aged 7-14 who are currently enrolled in school, and girls who have dropped out of school or never attended school. The marginalized pupils are defined as those who are above the average age for their class, those who have more than five siblings, who walk more than 30 minutes to reach school, or who have a history of not attending school.

70 will receive the intervention program. Within the 70 treatment schools, 80 students will receive the in-school component, and 40 of those students who are girls, plus 10 out-of-school girls, will participate in the after-school Wonder Women program. All students are randomly selected from lists of marginalized pupils from each school.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Literacy and math test scores from EGRA/EGMA test; literacy and math test scores from TCAI test; empowerment indicators from questionnaire.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
150 schools were randomly selected from a population of eligible schools. Treatment status was randomly assigned to 70 schools (leaving 80 control schools). Respondents were randomly selected based on criteria to identify marginalization.Respondents will be surveyed at baseline, midline and endline to measure the impact of the program.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization done in Stata
Randomization Unit
At school level to select treatment schools.
Students were selected into the program based on eligibility criteria, stratified by gender. If multiple students met the criteria, then they were selected at random.
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
150 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
9000 pupils
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
150 schools and 55 students per school
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
University of Ottawa
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Is the intervention completed?
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)