Promoting a Bundle of Biofortified Seeds and Agricultural Inputs in Northeastern Nigeria

Last registered on March 15, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

Promoting a Bundle of Biofortified Seeds and Agricultural Inputs in Northeastern Nigeria
Initial registration date
March 05, 2024

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
March 15, 2024, 3:16 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


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Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation
Harvest Plus
PI Affiliation

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Smallholder farmers in northeastern Nigeria face the triple threat of food insecurity, climate volatility, and conflict. These threats are closely interrelated. As in much of sub-Saharan Africa, climate change has extended dry seasons in Nigeria. This change in seasonal rainfall patterns both limits local agricultural production and disrupts long-standing symbiotic relationships between pastoralist livestock herders and settled agricultural households, leading to conflict between these groups. Exposure to conflict itself contributes to reduced agricultural production and increased food insecurity. With limited social safety nets available, many households exposed to conflict either turn to informal self-employment while reducing agricultural labor or migrate domestically in search of safety, peace, and security.

In this study, we implement a randomized control trial that aims to address these interrelated challenges by promoting the adoption of a bundle of agricultural inputs, including: biofortified seeds, fertilizer, information, and insurance among smallholder farmers in Gombe state, Nigeria. The goal of bundling agricultural inputs together is to leverage agro-ecological complementarities that are critical for optimal crop production. This study aims to promote the adoption of a bundle of agricultural inputs—including biofortified seeds, fertilizer, agro-chemicals, and insurance—among a population of smallholder farmers in Gombe, Nigeria. The research has two stages of outcomes. In the first stage, our main outcome of interest is the purchase of the bundle (i.e., take-up) and adoption of the elements of the bundle. In the second stage, we consider possible “downstream” outcomes such as agricultural yield, consumption/nutrition, risk preferences, and investment choices. Given the location of the study, we will focus an analysis of heterogeneity by whether the household has recently been displaced due to exposure to violent conflict.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Amare, Mulubrhan et al. 2024. "Promoting a Bundle of Biofortified Seeds and Agricultural Inputs in Northeastern Nigeria." AEA RCT Registry. March 15.
Experimental Details


Our main intervention is the promotion of a bundle of biofortified seeds, insurance, and other agricultural inputs. The bundle of agricultural inputs includes the following four components.

First, the bundle includes three varieties of biofortified seeds: (i) 2 kgs of pearl millet seeds, (ii) 6 kgs of cowpea seeds, and (iii) 5 kgs of vitamin A maize seeds.

Second, the bundle includes 50 kgs of NPK fertilizer, 50 kgs of urea fertilizer, and one liter of organic fertilizer. Note: Need to include more information about the type of fertilizer and intended application method.

Third, the bundle includes crop protection products (i.e., weedicide, pesticide, and herbicides). Specifically, the bundle includes one liter of cypermethrin, one liter of pendimethalin, and three sachets of seed dressing.

The fourth, and final, component of the bundle is insurance. The insurance offer is included in the bundle package as a m-voucher. Farmers can use a unique number on the voucher to activate the policies via basic SMS text message.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Our outcomes of interest fall into two categories. First, we will use outcomes that measure take-up of the bundle and the use of each of the bundle’s components. Second, we will use outcomes that measure “downstream” outcomes such as agricultural yield, consumption and nutrition, risk preferences, and investment choices.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Within both control and treatment groups, we have two sub-groups, ultimately leading us to randomly assign communities into one of four groups. Control communities consist of (i) pure control communities, which do not receive any information about the bundle of agricultural inputs and where the bundle may not be available locally and (ii) information-only control communities, which receive information about the bundle and are able to pay full price for the bundle if they wish. The bundle will be available for purchase at agro-dealers near the information-only control communities. Treatment communities consist of (i) relatively low subsidy communities, which receive information about the bundle and a voucher for a 50% subsidy on the purchase of the bundle and (ii) relatively high subsidy communities, which receive information about the bundle and a voucher for a 75% subsidy on the purchase of the bundle.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization was conducted by IFPRI researchers on a computer.
Randomization Unit
Randomization is at the community level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
230 communities
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,300 households
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
55 pure control communities, 56 information-only control communities, 60 communities in the 50% subsidy group, and 59 communities in the 75% subsidy group.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number