The first wave of marketing (Wave 1), conducted in October-November 2011, employed a two-level clustered randomization design,
with randomization both at the village and individual level. First, villages were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups in a two-by-two design. The first treatment dimension was the price of the product, either free (“Free”) or sold
(“Sale”). The second dimension was the type of distributing organization: either a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization (“NGO”) or a for-profit business (“For-Profit”). Thirty villages were assigned to each of the four treatment cells.
Then, at the household level, one of three products was randomly assigned to be offered to each household: Panadol (paracetamol, a painkiller), Elyzole (albendazole,a deworming medication), and a combination pack of Restors and Zinkid (oral
rehydration salts, “ORS” and zinc supplements, the World Health Organization’s recommended treatment for childhood diarrhea). For the Sale treatment group, the same price was used for the entire study.