Muslim Adolescents and Authority: Behavioral Experiments in Pakistan
Last registered on July 16, 2016

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Muslim Adolescents and Authority: Behavioral Experiments in Pakistan
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0001431
Initial registration date
July 16, 2016
Last updated
July 16, 2016 5:59 PM EDT
Location(s)

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Primary Investigator
Affiliation
University of Mannheim
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Mannheim
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2016-07-23
End date
2020-08-01
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Every fifth person in South Asia is an adolescent. Adolescents face exciting, yet also challenging changes. The challenges are rooted in the adolescents' exclusion from basic decision-making, strong and often harmful social norms, and limited access to information on issues that influence their socio-economic wellbeing, development and lives. To address these challenges, UNICEF and the IKEA Foundation conduct an impact evaluation for a multi-sectorial adolescents programme. The baseline assessment was conducted in 761 villages in rural and urban areas of Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan prior to the roll-out of the program. It revealed exceptional levels of vulnerability of the group of interest. The baseline results indicate the prevalence of very strong social norms and low levels of adolescents' self-determination. In July 2016 we conduct a series of well-tested behavioral experiments to assess adolescents' social norms such as the anticipation of rejection/condemnation from others, the likelihood to obey and beliefs about their counterparts' action. Furthermore, we want to observe whether adolescents will initiate a renegotiation of conditions offered to them. We will vary the setting by randomly allocating whether the adolescents are playing against other adolescents or against adults. Moreover, we will randomize the appearance of religious leaders during the sessions (in 16 villages), whereby in 8 villages the imam will be asked to additionally read a prayer prior to the sessions. In total, the behavioral experiments will be conducted in 24 villages, with 8 adults and 16 adolescents. The activities will partly be conducted with the same individuals (adolescents, parents, imams) who responded to the baseline survey. This will allow linking the datasets to understand the relationship between individual characteristics (such as socio-economic status), attitudes and norms. In the coming years, 12 of these villages will receive the UNICEF program, 12 others not.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Avdeenko, Alexandra and Juanita Vasquez-Escallon. 2016. "Muslim Adolescents and Authority: Behavioral Experiments in Pakistan." AEA RCT Registry. July 16. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.1431-1.0.
Former Citation
Avdeenko, Alexandra, Alexandra Avdeenko and Juanita Vasquez-Escallon. 2016. "Muslim Adolescents and Authority: Behavioral Experiments in Pakistan." AEA RCT Registry. July 16. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/1431/history/9432.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
In 24 villages we will play well-tested behavioral games. We will vary the setting by randomly allocating whether the adolescents are playing against other adolescents or against adults. Moreover, we will randomize the appearance of religious leaders during the sessions (in 16 villages), whereby in 8 villages the Imam will be asked to additionally read a prayer prior to the sessions.
Intervention Start Date
2016-07-23
Intervention End Date
2020-08-01
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
We will study the following outcomes:
- share shared with a needy person, depending on indicated age of the person who will receive the donation
- expected share that others have shared with needy individual
- fraction of adolescents/ adults who choose to cooperate
- likelihood to start renegotiation on payout
- confidence
Further outcomes on integration and role in the community will be collected in a set of focus group discussions and surveys.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
We play the following games with the participants:
- dictator game + measure what the participants expect about other individual's altruism;
- ultimatum game
- prisoners dilemma game
- stag hunt game
- renegotiation of the conditions offered during payout
Further outcomes on integration and role in the community will be collected in a set of focus group discussions and surveys.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
At individual level: Random draw of options
At village level: Random assignment on computer to whether Imam is present

Randomization Unit
At individual level: Random draw of options by participants (experimental sessions)
At village level: Random assignment on computer to whether Imam is present
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
24 regular participants in 24 villages + 24 imams = 600 individuals
Sample size: planned number of observations
max 600 participants
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Out of a total of 24 villages, imams will be invited to 16 sessions. In 8 they will be requested to hold a prayer.
At the individual level: We randomize whether an individual is informed on whether he/she is playing against (1) an adult or (2) an adolescent or (3) whether no further information about the counterpart's characteristics is provided.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Universit├Ąt Mannheim-Ethikkommission co LS Prof Taupitz
IRB Approval Date
2016-05-25
IRB Approval Number
2016-05-25