NEW UPDATE: Completed trials may now upload and register supplementary documents (e.g. null results reports, populated pre-analysis plans, or post-trial results reports) in the Post Trial section under Reports, Papers, & Other Materials.
Household Water Connections in Tangier, Morocco
Initial registration date
October 18, 2016
October 18, 2016 5:46 PM EDT
Jameel Poverty Action Lab Europe
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Harvard Business School
Université Catholique de Louvain
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Additional Trial Information
Connecting private dwellings to the water main is expensive and typically cannot be publicly financed. We show that households' willingness to pay for a private connection is high when it can be purchased on credit, not because a connection improves health but because it increases the time available for leisure and reduces inter and intra-household conflicts on water matters, leading to sustained improvements in well-being. Our results suggest that facilitating access to credit for households to finance lump sum quality-of life investments can significantly increase welfare, even if those investments do not result in any health or income gains.
Treatment households received information about the credit available for water connection, as well as help with the administrative procedures needed to apply for credit and the connection. Specifically, all the necessary paperwork was filled out and photographed in individuals' homes, and brought to the municipal office for approval. The remaining households (the comparison group) were eligible to apply for a connection on credit if they wanted to, but they received neither individualized information nor procedural assistance.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Water connectivity (# of new connections to the water network), Time spent fetching water, Labor market and school participation, Perceived time availability, Costs of water, Mental well-being, Social integration
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
This paper uses a randomized design to study the effects of easier access to in-home water connections on poor urban households in Morocco. The organization Amendis runs a program which allows low-income households to buy a connection to the water and sanitation network at full cost, but on interest-free credit. Researchers worked with Amendis to apply an encouragement design as an intervention, where both treatment and control groups could take up water connectivity program, but treatment households were informed about the option through a door-to-door campaign and also provided with procedural assistance to take up the program.
Experimental Design Details
The random allocation of clusters between treatment and control groups was stratified by location, water source, the number of children under five, and number of households within the cluster.
Block level (clusters of plots which contain households)
Was the treatment clustered?
Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Treatment: 315 blocks, 434 households
Control: 311 blocks, 411 households
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
UCLA Office for Protection of Research Subjects
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
MIT Ethical Review Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post Trial Information
Is the intervention completed?
Intervention Completion Date
April 30, 2008, 12:00 AM +00:00
Is data collection complete?
Data Collection Completion Date
August 31, 2009, 12:00 AM +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco
Devoto, Florencia, Esther Duflo, Pascaline Dupas, William Parienté, and Vincent Pons. 2012. "Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco." American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 4(4): 68-99.
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS