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Primary Education Management in Madagascar
Last registered on November 30, 2016


Trial Information
General Information
Primary Education Management in Madagascar
Initial registration date
November 30, 2016
Last updated
November 30, 2016 8:41 AM EST
Primary Investigator
University of Minnesota
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Minnesota
Additional Trial Information
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
This paper exploits a recently implemented randomised control trial in Madagascar that focused on management reforms. It investigates whether the impact of the reforms varies by the type of teacher. This is an important issue because Madagascar, like many other developing countries, has recently hired a large number of contract or temporary teachers, who have less training but may be motivated to work harder in order to have their contracts renewed. The management reforms did not have any impact on student test scores. This lack of an impact holds for all types of teachers. It may be that two years is not enough time for the program to have had a measurable impact, but it is also possible that the program is ineffective, at least in the context of Madagascar's educational system.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Glewwe, Paul and Eugenie Maïga. 2016. "Primary Education Management in Madagascar." AEA RCT Registry. November 30. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.1763-1.0.
Former Citation
Glewwe, Paul, Paul Glewwe and Eugenie Maïga. 2016. "Primary Education Management in Madagascar." AEA RCT Registry. November 30. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/1763/history/12135.
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Experimental Details
CISCO level intervention: CISCO (district) heads were provided with tools to accomplish their tasks, along with training on the use of these tools. Other CISCO level administrative staff (financial officers, pedagogical officers, and programming officers) also received training on the AGEMAD program. Tools included: a teacher transfer master sheet, a pedagogical supplies form, and a class observation grid.

ZAP level intervention: Operational tools that were designed to help monitor and support schools were provided to ZAP (subdistrict) heads. In contrast to the CISCO level intervention, only the ZAP heads received the AGEMAD tools and training; no other ZAP level staff participated. Tools provided included: pedagogical supervision and support forms, and report cards on the performance of, and the resources for, each school in the ZAP. Only ZAPs in the CISCOs which were treated were randomized into this intervention.

AGEMAD intervention at the school level: Teachers were provided educational and administrative tools (e.g. lesson planning forms, records of student attendance and learning, and reports to parents and school directors) and school principals (directors) were provided with tools to better manage their schools (e.g. attendance registers to monitor teachers' absence, summaries of student test scores, and community meeting forms). In addition, school meetings were held to discuss school report cards, in order to encourage parental and community involvement in monitoring school quality. Only for schools in treated ZAPs were randomly assigned to the AGEMAD intervention.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Test scores
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Researchers also examined examine whether the program impacts on test scores vary by the type of teacher. The four types of teachers in the AGEMAD school were: regular (civil service) teachers, FRAM contract teachers (hired by a parent-teacher association), other contract teachers, or student teachers.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
This paper evaluates the impact of the AGEMAD (Amélioration de la Gestion de l’Education àMadagascar) program on student learning in Madagascar, and whether the impact of the program varies by the type of teacher. The AGEMAD program is a management system designed to improve the management and performance of primary education. The AGEMAD program provides tools that were designed to help various employees of the Ministry of Education (district heads, sub-district heads, school principals, and teachers) do their work and, ultimately, improve educational outcomes.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
3,774 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
24,579 students
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Control: 1,721 schools
CISCO-AGEMAD (treatment1): 1,314 schools
ZAP-AGEMAD (treatment2): 436 schools
FULL-AGEMAD (treatment3): 303 schools

Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Is the intervention completed?
Intervention Completion Date
June 30, 2007, 12:00 AM +00:00
Is data collection complete?
Data Collection Completion Date
June 30, 2007, 12:00 AM +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
1,212 schools
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
22,038 students
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Control: 303 schools CISCO-AGEMAD: 303 schools ZAP-AGEMAD: 303 schools FULL-AGEMAD: 303 schools
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?

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Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
The impacts of school management reforms in Madagascar: do the impacts vary by teacher type?
Glewwe, Paul, and Eugenie Maiga. 2011. "The Impacts of School Management Reforms in Madagascar: Do the Impacts Vary by Teacher Type?" Journal of Development Effectiveness 3(4): 435-89.