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Voting to Tell Others
Last registered on December 14, 2016

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Voting to Tell Others
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0001842
Initial registration date
December 14, 2016
Last updated
December 14, 2016 12:01 PM EST
Location(s)
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
UC Berkeley
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Chicago
PI Affiliation
Harvard University
PI Affiliation
University of California, Berkeley
Additional Trial Information
Status
Completed
Start date
2011-01-01
End date
2012-11-30
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Why do people vote? We design a field experiment to estimate a model of voting 'because others will ask'. The expectation of being asked motivates turnout if individuals derive pride from telling others that they voted, or feel shame from admitting that they did not vote, provided that lying is costly. In a door-to-door survey about election turnout, we experimentally vary (i) the informational content and use of a flyer pre-announcing the survey, (ii) the duration and payment for the survey, and (iii) the incentives to lie about past voting. The experimental results indicate significant social image concerns. For the 2010 Congressional election, we estimate a value of voting 'to tell others' of about $15, contributing 2 percentage points to turnout. Lastly, we evaluate a get-out-the-vote intervention in which we tell potential voters that we will ask if they voted.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
DellaVigna, Stefano et al. 2016. "Voting to Tell Others." AEA RCT Registry. December 14. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.1842-2.0.
Former Citation
DellaVigna, Stefano et al. 2016. "Voting to Tell Others." AEA RCT Registry. December 14. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/1842/history/12422.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
The experiment is a combination of four crossed interventions: (i) flyer treatments, (ii) payment and duration of the survey, (iii) survey content announcement at the door, and (iv) incentives to claim non-voter status. One of five different flyers were left at each house, informing the household about the next day's survey: No Flyer, Survey Flyer, Election Flyer, Opt-Out Flyer, and Election Opt-Out Flyer. Survey flyers simply stated the household would be asked to complete a survey. Election flyers specified that the survey would be about 'your voter participation in the 2010 congressional election." Households in the Opt-Out Flyer treatment receive a flyer as in the Survey Flyer treatment, except for an added check-box which the household can mark if it does not wish to be disturbed. Similarly, the flyer in the Election Opt-Out Flyer treatment has an added opt-out check box.

Second, payment ($5 or $10) and the time necessary (5 or 10 minutes) for the survey were randomly varied and pre-announced on flyers. Lastly, half the respondents of the ten-minute survey were informed that the survey would be eight minutes shorter if they stated that they did not vote in the 2010 congressional election. For voters, this treatment amounts to an incentive to lie and permits us to quantify the disutility of voters were they to say (untruthfully) that they did not vote. For the 50 percent of non-voters who lie without such incentives, this treatment provides an incentive to tell the truth.

In a secondary experiment, in the five days before the election date, researchers posted a flyer on the doorknob of households informing them that 'researchers will contact you within three weeks of the election [...] to conduct a survey on your voter participation.'
Intervention Start Date
2011-07-01
Intervention End Date
2012-11-06
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
opening the door, survey completion, lying about voting, voter behavior
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
In this paper, researchers estimate a model of voting 'to tell others' by using an experiment which randomized flyers and surveys about voting behaviors. The field experiment had three main sets of treatments: 1) randomization of information on the flyer, 2) randomized and pre-announced payment for and length of the survey, and 3) randomized incentives meant to evoke different responses to a question about voter turnout.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Every half-hour, the surveyor moves to a different street in the neighborhood and begins a new route of 13 homes, typically entering a different treatment in the next route.
Randomization Unit
Route (group of 13 houses)
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
On a single work day, each surveyor was assigned 8 routes. Work days were Saturdays and Sundays from July - November 2011.
Sample size: planned number of observations
Flyer and survey experiment: 14,475 households Get out the vote experiment: 125,111 individuals
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Please refer to Figure 3 of DellaVigna, List, & Malmendier (2016) for a breakdown of sample sizes by treatment arm.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Social & Behavioral Sciences Institutional Review Board, University of Chicago
IRB Approval Date
Details not available
IRB Approval Number
Details not available
Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
Yes
Intervention Completion Date
November 06, 2012, 12:00 AM +00:00
Is data collection complete?
Yes
Data Collection Completion Date
November 06, 2012, 12:00 AM +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
13,197 houesholds
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Please refer to Figure 3 of DellaVigna, List, & Malmendier (2016) for a breakdown of sample sizes by treatment arm.
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Yes
Program Files
Program Files
Reports and Papers
Preliminary Reports
Relevant Papers
Abstract
Voting to Tell Others - Review of Economic Studies, forthcoming.
Citation
Della Vigna, Stefano, John List, Ulrike Malmendier, and Gautam Rao. "Voting to Tell Others." Review of Economic Studies. Forthcoming.