NEW UPDATE: Completed trials may now upload and register supplementary documents (e.g. null results reports, populated pre-analysis plans, or post-trial results reports) in the Post Trial section under Reports, Papers, & Other Materials.
Supporting 18-25 Year-Olds Through Long-Term Mentoring Plus Financial Assistance in France (Pass' Accompagnement)
Initial registration date
March 23, 2017
March 24, 2017 10:01 AM EDT
Other Primary Investigator(s)
University of Lausanne
Additional Trial Information
In Europe, it has become increasingly difficult for young people to find decent-paying jobs and move out from their parents' homes. In response, local governments have begun working with independent organizations to try and halt this growing crisis. The goal of these actions is to favor professional integration and autonomous housing for youth.
In 2010, the General Council of Bas-Rhin (France) started implementing the "Pass'Accompagnement" program. This project is to be offered to 1400 youth in the department, aged from 18 to 25. It provides personalized mentorship to young people experiencing unemployment or homelessness and aims to support access to housing and favor more autonomy for youth.
Each beneficiary will be assigned a mentor meant to advise them in matters of employment, education, and housing over the course of two years. If program participants find autonomous housing, the General Council will pledge to pay the rent if the participant fail to do so over the following year and a half. Finally, participants may receive a grant of up to 1,800 Euros (2,593 USD). The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention in France using a randomized experiment, with randomization at the individual level. The evaluation will be implemented in two waves. In each wave, 300 marginalized youth will be assigned to the beneficiary group and 400 others to the control group. We will identify the causal effect of the intervention by comparing differences between the two groups in terms of social and professional integration as well as housing quality and stability, and in terms of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. In addition, potential heterogeneous effects between rural and urban areas will be assessed.
All participants (whether or not they will benefit from the program) will be interviewed three time over the course of three years: before the randomization takes place, and one year and two years after randomization. Registration Citation
Chiodi, Vera, Bruno Crepon and Clemence Kieny. 2017. "Supporting 18-25 Year-Olds Through Long-Term Mentoring Plus Financial Assistance in France (Pass' Accompagnement)." AEA RCT Registry. March 24.
In order to be eligible for Pass'Accompagnement's program, candidates had to be between 18 and 25 years of age and satisfy other criteria related to their employment, housing, and family life. This particular evaluation focused on youths in the most precarious situations.
Individuals in the treatment group were assigned a mentor (usually a social worker or educator) with the task of advising them in matters of employment, education, and housing over the course of two years. The mentorship program was divided into three stages. During the first stage, mentors aided mentees in managing their finances and finding employment. In the second stage, mentors helped mentees find independent housing. If program participants accessed autonomous housing, the General Council pledged to pay the rent if the participant failed to do so over the following year and a half. During the third stage, mentors assisted mentees in maintaining their housing and financial situations. Additionally, participants could receive a grant of 1,800 Euros maximum (2,593 USD) which could be spent on a variety of things, including interview clothing and a driver's license, depending on the social worker's assessment. This flexible design was intended to allow the program to address the specific needs of each participant.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Personalized Support/Mentorship
2. Current Occupation
4. Stable Housing and Employment?
5. Incomes and Expenses
6. Budgetary Constraints
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Personalized Support/Mentorship : Is the participant still working with their mentor?
2. Current Occupation : Is the participant currently employed, seeking employment, or pursuing job training?
3. Housing : What is the participant's housing situation?
4. Stable Housing and Employment? : Is the participant's housing and employment stable?
5. Incomes and Expenses : What are the participant's sources of income and expenses?
6. Budgetary Constraints : Has the participant fallen behind on payments or received medical care?
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
This study focuses evaluates the work done by Pass'Accompagnement, an organization which provides unemployed and homeless young people with personalized mentorship designed to help them find housing and work. Mentors also help their mentees develop the life skills necessary to live independently. The goal of this study is to determine to what extent Pass'Accompagnement succeeds at helping its beneficiaries find and keep stable work and housing.
This study takes the form of a randomized controlled trial which evaluated the effectiveness of Pass'Accompagnement's program relative to the effectiveness of standard, state-provided social services. From a sample of 981 eligible participants, researchers randomly assigned 486 youth to the treatment group and 495 youth to a comparison group. Comparison youth did not participate in the program, but could apply to other housing schemes. Participants (both from the comparison and treatment groups) were reinterviewed one and two years after their inclusion in the trial.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization done in office by a computer
The treatment was randomized at the individual level.
Was the treatment clustered?
Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
600 individuals treatment
800 individuals control
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
Study has received IRB approval. Details not available.
IRB Approval Date
Details not available
IRB Approval Number
Details not available
Post Trial Information
Is the intervention completed?
Intervention Completion Date
July 15, 2015, 12:00 AM +00:00
Is data collection complete?
Data Collection Completion Date
July 15, 2015, 12:00 AM +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
489 individuals treatment
494 individuals control
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
High unemployment, low wages, and expensive rents prevent many young adults from acquiring their own housing in parts of Europe. In response, many European countries have implemented programs that provide young adults with subsidized housing. Despite these provisions, there are still many young people in housing need. In 2010, the General Council of Bas-Rhin began offering 18-25 year olds residing in the department access to Pass'Accompagnment, a program which aims to improve the financial independence and social integration of young adults in the region.
Youth organizations working with the General Council identified interested youth. To be eligible, youth had to be between 18 and 25 years old, and lack financial support from their family. From a sample of 981 eligible participants, researchers randomly assigned 486 youth to the treatment group and 495 youth to a comparison group. Comparison youth did not participate in the program, but could apply to other housing schemes. Those who were randomly selected to participate in the program were assigned a unique social worker with the task of advising them in matters of employment, education, and housing over the course of two years. If program participants found autonomous housing, the General Council made a commitment to their landlord that they would pay the rent if the participant failed to do so over the following year and a half. Additionally, participants could receive a grant of 1,800 Euros maximum (2,593 USD) which could be spent on a variety of things, including interview clothing and a driver's license, depending on the social worker's assessment. This flexible design was intended to allow the program to address the specific needs of each participant.
The evaluation found that Pass'Accompagnement helped youth find adequate and stable housing two years after the beginning of the program, but had no impact on their professional situation. These results suggest that long-term mentoring and housing support was not sufficient to help youth find jobs. Further iterations of the program could include specific measures geared more directly towards helping youth find employment.
"L'evaluation d'impact du Pass'Accompagnement a mi-parcours." Vera Chiodi, Bruno Crepon and Clemence Kieny.
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS