Programs included in the study are:
1. Agricultural extension: we hired a team of 11 agriculture experts, with a combined experience of 66 years in the agricultural sector, to deliver in-person group training to randomly selected farming households. The training sessions ran from September to October 2016 - leading up to the “short rains” agricultural seasons in Kenya. The training includes education on: land preparation, planting, soil fertility, crop selection, soil and water management, field management (fertilization, pest and disease management, weeding), record keeping and financial management, farmer group dynamics and con conflict resolution, harvesting, post-harvest management, value addition and marketing.
2. Agricultural inputs: based on the advice of agricultural experts, we provided recipients with enough inputs to plant approximately 0.5 acres of cabbages or maize. The type of inputs to be provided were recommended by our agricultural consultants who determined the requirements based on terrain and crops grown in the study areas. Specifically, for the cabbage-growing region of Mbooni, we provided 50 grams of Baraka F1 seeds and 75 kilograms of planting fertilizer. For the maize-growing region of Kilungu, we provided 4 kg of Duma 43 seeds, 25 kg of planting fertilizer and 25 kg of top-dressing fertilizer. These inputs are roughly modeled after the Government of Kenya's National Accelerated Agriculture Inputs Access Program. The program includes a voucher, valued at USD 60 - 80, to cover the cost of 10 kg of hybrid maize seed, 50 kg of basal fertilizer, and 50 kg of top-dressing fertilizer, inputs sufficient for approximately 1 acre (0.4 ha) of maize. This study provides similar, though not precisely the same, package. Our agricultural inputs package also included a one-time information session on proper input usage provided by our extension agents.
3. Livestock transfers: recipients received 25 one-month old chicks vaccinated for common diseases as well as a starter pack of feed (~10 kg). Recipients were also provided with basic information about taking care of their chicks by our team of agricultural experts and were visited occasionally by the agriculture team over the following 4 months.
4. Cash transfers: some households were randomly selected to receive direct cash transfers. The size of these transfers match the per-recipient cost of one of the above programs $15 for agricultural extension, $75 for the 319 agricultural input recipients in Mbooni and $35 for the 181 agricultural input recipients in Kilungu, and $120 for livestock transfers. Cash transfers were delivered using the MPesa mobile money platform.