Entrepreneurship Education in Uganda: A Randomized Control Trial

Last registered on August 05, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

Entrepreneurship Education in Uganda: A Randomized Control Trial
Initial registration date
May 02, 2017

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 02, 2017, 2:12 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
August 05, 2021, 1:48 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

University of California, Berkeley

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
UC Berkeley

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
This study aims to carry out an evaluation of the long-term impacts of an innovative school-based intervention designed to enhance the ability of youth to engage and succeed in both formal employment and entrepreneurial activities in Uganda, ultimately leading to improvements in livelihood. The findings will inform future interventions (in Uganda, Rwanda, and Kenya) to help more young people overcome obstacles to successful entrepreneurship and labor market participation, such as gender-related barriers, thereby improving their livelihoods and socioeconomic security. The study will cover impacts of the intervention on socio-emotional skills, access to finance and markets, ability to generate demand for products and services, as well as entrepreneurial, workforce, and life success.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Chioda, Laura and PAUL GERTLER. 2021. "Entrepreneurship Education in Uganda: A Randomized Control Trial." AEA RCT Registry. August 05. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2134-1.2000000000000002
Former Citation
Chioda, Laura and PAUL GERTLER. 2021. "Entrepreneurship Education in Uganda: A Randomized Control Trial." AEA RCT Registry. August 05. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2134/history/97177
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details


The “Educate! Experience” program, implemented during the 2012-2013 school year, is developed around the theory of change detailed below:

Many Ugandan youth:
- Lack access to high-quality, student-centered education
- Lack the income, skills and resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods
- Are not meaningfully engaged in the civil, social and cultural life in their communities and are not so motivated to do so
- Have poor psychosocial adjustment

Target population
Ugandan Secondary School Students (Senior 5 and Senior 6)

- Social Entrepreneurship and Leadership Course
Approximately 45 hours of instruction in English focused on developing socially responsible leadership skills, business/entrepreneurship skills, community awareness/engagement and group and individual ‘personal projects’ such as community initiatives and businesses.
- One-to-one and Group Mentoring sessions
Mentorship has a target minimum of 75 minutes per students – 15 minutes once per term; there is approximately 7 hours for group mentorship. These sessions focus on the personal development of the scholars enrolled in the SELC and are an opportunity to build supportive relationships between the mentors and scholars.
- Student business club (SBC)
4 hours of workshops, undefined number of SBC meetings. The SBC focus on business development and meant to help students design projects that generate income. SBC members are responsible for developing and managing the club projects with the guidance of the Educate! mentor.

- Social Entrepreneurship and Leadership Course Attendance
Students complete Entrepreneurship and Leadership Course (Target: 80%)
- Mentorship received
Students have been mentored at least 75 minutes (minimum 1 time per term for 15 minutes)
- Participation in Student Business Club
Students have actively participated in SBC and have created a small-business as a group project

- Leadership
Student feels responsibility for improving their communities and their own well-being
- Community Engagement
Student has increased concern for their community/takes action based on this concern
- Business Planning
Student has improved business / financial skills
- Enterprise Development
Student has started their own business
- Psychosocial development
Student has improved psychosocial adjustment
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Based on the theory of change, the evaluation is designed to test the following hypotheses:

3.2.1 Participation in Educate!’s programs will improve participants’ skills, specifically:
- Practical business skills such as business planning, management, basic accounting and finance, and basic financial literacy including savings behavior and use if financial institutions
- Soft skills such as negotiation, commutation and persuasion, creativity, patience, and self-efficacy

3.2.2 Participation in Educate!’s programs will improve participants’ economic outcomes, specifically:
- Entrepreneurial success including starting businesses, investing in and expanding business, and business income of the self-employed
- Wages of those working for others (Educate! may not necessarily increase wage sector employment, but rather cause a substitution away from wage sector employment to self-employment)
- Total income from all sources

3.2.3 Participation in Educate!’s programs will improve participants’ participation and leadership in community organizations and projects, political organizations and activities, and school activities.

3.2.4 Participation in Educate!’s programs will lead to improvement in the lives of women in terms of:
- Economic outcomes
- Reduced or better timed fertility
- Reduced victimization from criminal activity and domestic abuse
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The study design will help us to assess the impact on the hypotheses described in the theory of change. We use data generated from a cluster randomized control trial where the unit of analysis will be the individual student.

We want to include all study participants regardless of whether or not they completed the program. Our estimates will use an intent to treatment (ITT) estimate of impact. ITT estimates measure the difference in outcomes between those assigned to the treatment group and those assigned to the comparison group, irrespective of whether participants assigned to either group actually receive the treatment.

We will then use the random assignment as an instrumental variable for completing the program to obtain the local average treatment effect (LATE). LATE is the impact of the program estimated for a specific subset of the population, such as those that comply with their assignment to the treatment. Thus the LATE provides only a local estimate of the program impact and should not be generalized to the entire population.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomized on a computer
Randomization Unit
School level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
48 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
The sample size intended to be 45 students x 48 schools = 2160 students. The baseline sample included 1916 students because (i) some schools did not actually have the required 45 students in their S5 course and (ii) due to attrition. Please note that all students were administered a short survey in which they had to indicate that they were interested in participating in a leadership and entrepreneurship course and that they had the time to commit to this type of course. Students were assigned a score based on the survey and the top 45 students were selected to be in either the treatment or control group.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
24 schools treatment
24 schools control
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
The final sample size includes 48 schools and 1916 students, of which 944 from the 24 schools are the treatment group and 972 from the 24 school are in the control groups. Using the data from the 2012 baseline survey of study participants, the average MDES of the outcomes of interest is 0.228 standard deviations, and rises to 0.326 standard deviations for gender specific analyses, due to the decreased sample size.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials