Primary Outcomes (end points)
Our study will focus on the following outcomes: student achievement (test scores) and classroom instruction. Specifically, we collect the following data:
i. Student assessments in math, science and language
ii. An assessment of teacher subject matter expertise in science and math, based on both domestic (e.g. Pratham teaching capability test, Teacher’s Understanding of Subject Knowledge or TUSK) and international models (e.g. Context Knowledge for Teaching or CKT);
iii. A survey of teachers, based on several international models (including the Teaching and Learning International Study or TALIS, the Program for International Student Assessment or PISA, the Program for International Reading Literacy Study or PIRLS and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study or TIMSS);
iv. A survey of students (based on PISA and the MET project’s “Tripod” survey).
Our focus will be not only to document the impact of the program on student achievement, but also to document changes in school management and classroom instruction practices.
We will also conduct one-to-two rounds of unannounced visits to schools and conduct classroom observations to document the program’s impact on: (a) teachers’ presence in school and the classroom; (b) the share of classroom time devoted to instruction, classroom management, and other tasks drawing on the Stallings Observation Protocol, which has been previously used in India and other developing countries) (Stallings et al., 2014; Sankar & Linden, 2014; World Bank, 2016); and (c) different classroom teaching practices (drawing on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System or CLASS).