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The Turk’s Other: An Experimental Investigation Into Turkey’s Prejudice Towards Kurds
Last registered on March 05, 2018

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
The Turk’s Other: An Experimental Investigation Into Turkey’s Prejudice Towards Kurds
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0002602
Initial registration date
December 13, 2017
Last updated
March 05, 2018 7:58 PM EST
Location(s)
Region
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
Skidmore College
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2017-12-14
End date
2018-05-01
Secondary IDs
Abstract
This survey experiment will employ affirmation theory in an attempt to reduce prejudice against ethnic Kurds by ethnic Turks within Turkey. It will also use the same methodology to examine prejudice against Syrian immigrants, another out-group in Turkey, whose numbers have increased due to the civil war in Syria. It is hypothesized that an affirmation exercise will decrease levels of prejudice against both Kurds and Syrians. However, if affirmation is only effective at decreasing prejudice against one of these groups and not the other, the implications would suggest that there are more complex dynamics in the in-group out-group relationships within Turkey.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Rudman, Benjamin. 2018. "The Turk’s Other: An Experimental Investigation Into Turkey’s Prejudice Towards Kurds." AEA RCT Registry. March 05. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2602-5.0.
Former Citation
Rudman, Benjamin. 2018. "The Turk’s Other: An Experimental Investigation Into Turkey’s Prejudice Towards Kurds." AEA RCT Registry. March 05. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2602/history/26318.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
An affirmation exercise will be used as an intervention.
Intervention Start Date
2018-03-05
Intervention End Date
2018-03-24
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Levels of prejudice towards Kurds and Syrians.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Participants will be asked two questions of interest. The first question, which is a modified version of two questions developed by Meertens and Pettigrew (1995), will state “Kurds fail to be successful in Turkey because they do not attempt to learn Turkish values and skills.” The second question, modified from Pereira et al. (2010), will state “Turkey’s cultural life is generally undermined by people coming here from Syria.” Participants will state how much they agree or disagree on a 100-point Likert scale. These questions have been developed from previous works of literature that have effectively measured prejudice levels.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Qualtrics will recruit and field the survey to participants. They will begin by giving implied consent, an acceptable form of consent on online surveys, and will subsequently be randomized into either the treatment or control condition. They will then be given the treatment or control task and, after completing their respective tasks, will be given the dependent variable questions. Next, they will answer demographic questions and they will then be debriefed. This will complete the survey.



Experimental Design Details
Recruitment: Qualtrics will both recruit participants and field the survey to them. The proposed length of the survey is as long as it is to account for the possible difficulties in obtaining responses. Unfortunately, there are only around 2000 mTurk workers that operate in Turkey so it will be more difficult to recruit participants than if I were using mTurk in the United States. It is possible that I experience no issues and recruit 250 participants quickly. However, if this is not the case the following protocol for recruitment will be used in attempt to recruit the missing number of participants. 1. mTurk will be used again with different recruitment wording. 2. Other crowdsourcing websites will be used, such as CrowdFlower and Prolific Academic. *Note: After being unsuccessful at recruiting subjects using MTurk, I have switched and am now using Qualtrics to field my survey. I followed the steps outlined above, with the only exception being that Qualtrics is not a crowdsourcing website. However, I did not anticipate the time that it would take to switch from MTurk to Qualtrics, and in order to complete these changes I have pushed back my end dates a significant amount. Consent: Implied consent will be given if the participant selects ‘agree’ on the first page, which asks if the participant is willing to participate. Participants will then be randomized into either the treatment group or control group and will subsequently complete their respective task. Treatment: Participants will be provided with a list of 10 values, which they will be asked to rank in order of most important to them to least important to them. The initial order of the values will be randomized to ensure there is no effect of initial order. Participants will then be asked to describe why the most important value to them is important to them. According to affirmation theory, this will allow participants to experience the affirmation effect. Control: Participants will be asked to describe everything that they have eaten or drank in the past 48 hours. This is meant to serve as a placeholder for the treatment experience so that there is no effect on the amount of time the survey takes overall on the results. After completing their respective tasks, participants will move to the section where the dependent variables are measured. Dependent Variables: There are two dependent variables of interest, which measure prejudice towards Kurds and prejudice towards Syrians, which will be measured by asking participants six questions, stated below. In addition to the two questions for the dependent variables, participants will also be asked four questions that are not of particular interest to the researcher. However, they are meant to mask which questions are of interest to the researcher to avoid demand characteristics. All questions will involve participants ranking how much they agree with each statement on a one-hundred-point Likert scale. The first question, which is a modified version of two questions developed by Meertens and Pettigrew (1995), will state “Kurds fail to be successful in Turkey because they do not attempt to learn Turkish values and skills.” The second question, modified from Pereira et al. (2010), will state “Turkey’s cultural life is generally undermined by people coming here from Syria.” The following four statements will be used to attempt to mask the questions of interest: “European states should allow Turkey to join the European Union,” “States that have a shoreline to the Black Sea should cooperate economically,” “Turkey should try to host the Olympics,” and “The Mediterranean states should cooperate economically.” The order of the dependent variable questions will be randomized to ensure that the order has no effect on results. Demographic Questions: The following covariates will be collected after the treatment and dependent variables are collected: age, sex, how long it took participants to complete either the control or treatment exercise, how much they identify as a Turk, how content they are with their economic condition, how religious they are, in the province in Turkey in which they reside, education level and ethnicity. These will be collected after the dependent variables are measured so that these identity questions do not inadvertently prime participants’ identities. After the demographic questions are collected, participants will be debriefed using vague language (but adequately according to Skidmore’s IRB). Vague language is necessary due to the controversial nature of this experiment.
Randomization Method
Randomization will be done by Qualtrics.
Randomization Unit
Randomization will be done by individual, with randomization being done for two groups. Group one will be the control group and group two will be the treatment group.
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
N/A (clustering is not used)
Sample size: planned number of observations
up to 250 participants using Qualtrics
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
100-125 participants in the control group
100-125 participants in the treatment group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
P-value of .1 (90% confidence interval) is the minimal acceptable level for statistical significance.
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Skidmore College Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
2017-11-18
IRB Approval Number
1711-663
Analysis Plan

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Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS