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Community-Based Rangeland and Livestock Management
Last registered on February 06, 2018


Trial Information
General Information
Community-Based Rangeland and Livestock Management
Initial registration date
February 06, 2018
Last updated
February 06, 2018 6:29 PM EST
Primary Investigator
Northwestern University
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
World Bank
Additional Trial Information
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
The primary academic purpose of the study is to test the impact of a community-based livestock and rangeland management program in northern Namibia on livestock assets, income, social cohesion and rangeland health.

It is theorized that pastoral farmers in communal areas like northern Namibia face a “tragedy of the commons” problem regarding their choice of where to graze and how many cattle to keep, and that formalizing community resource management practices (via group meetings, defined responsibilities and sanctions), as GOPA sought to do, can alleviate this problem.

GOPA also tried to introduce animal husbandry best practices, including herd restructuring to reduce the share of unproductive cattle and use of vaccinations and supplements. Similarly, GOPA sought to teach farmers to commercialize their practices and sell more of their animals through the formal market.

This evaluation also speaks to a body of literature in ecology on holistic rangeland management, the theory that guided GOPA’s farmer training. This technique, which involves grazing cattle in large combined herds and following a regular rotational plan, has been posited to improve the long-term health of the rangeland in areas at risk of desertification.

In addition to instituting community groups as well as regional livestock marketing cooperatives and training on animal husbandry and rangeland management, the CBRLM project provided direct support to farmers in the form of installing water points, providing matching funds to community groups and implementing a livestock pass-on scheme.

To address all these potential avenues of impact, this analysis will examine changes in farmer behaviors and attitudes, cattle herd structure and health, rangeland quality and grass availability, and household well-being.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Jamison, Julian and Dean Karlan. 2018. "Community-Based Rangeland and Livestock Management." AEA RCT Registry. February 06. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2723-1.0.
Former Citation
Jamison, Julian, Dean Karlan and Dean Karlan. 2018. "Community-Based Rangeland and Livestock Management." AEA RCT Registry. February 06. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2723/history/25598.
Experimental Details
In each treatment community, GOPA conducted CBRLM trainings for farmers over the course of 2012 through 2014. Training topics included planned grazing, combined herding, and best practices for raising cattle for commercial production. GOPA also helped formalize existing farmers associations to adjudicate disputes over natural resources and manage financial contributions for common goods by strengthening bookkeeping practices, creating shared bank accounts, and developing a clear structure for dispute settlement. GOPA matched farmers’ financial contributions for common goods for the first year of the program, and constructed new borehole wells in 39 communities where water access was limited.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Rangeland management behavior, livestock management behavior, community dynamics, knowledge / attitudes / beliefs, rangeland health, cattle wealth and herd structure, household income and expenditure
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Each of these outcome areas includes several indices, which are in turn comprised of several component variables. Full details on the construction of each component variable and the method of indexing are available in the attached analysis plan.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Movement of cattle, political participation, directly observed herding and community group activities, fencing, behavioral games, community structures, village headman attitudes, intra-kraal trust, persistence of behaviors over time, inequality, monitoring of others' behavior
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Each of these outcomes includes several component variables. The attached analysis plan includes a full list of secondary outcome variables and their construction.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
The unit of randomization in this study is the Rangeland Intervention Area (RIA). RIAs are essentially intervention zones that share a commonly agreed upon boundary and a common authority over what happens within the area. Those RIAs selected to be part of the treatment group received the package of CBRLM activities while those RIAs selected for the control group did not.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Done electronically using STATA
Randomization Unit
Rangeland Intervention Area (RIA)
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
41 RIAs
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,250 cattle-owning households, 1,230 rangeland assessment sites
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
21 treatment RIAs, 20 control RIAs
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

There are documents in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access to this information.

Request Information
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan
Analysis Plan Documents
Namibia Data Analysis Plan (All Datasets)

MD5: d4d556e8097147714ebd7fa61a7ba996

SHA1: 8f65dd45c6f6f019802667e8cce351dd666e931a

Uploaded At: February 06, 2018

Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Is the intervention completed?
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)