Primary Outcomes (end points)
* Discharge index: The (quarterly) mean standardized effluent level of the ith company at time t
* Discharge relative to permit: The (quarterly) mean standardized effluent level relative to the permitted level of the ith company at time t
* Probability of violation A compliance indicator, equal to one (1) if company i reported at least one effluent limit exceedance during time t and 0 otherwise
We standardize effluent levels within groups defined by various Discharge Monitoring Report and permit limit value characteristics, including unit of measurement and whether a value is a concentration or quantity. This results in a standardized (z-score) measure of effluent levels, and effluent levels as standardized deviations relative to the permit limit. Because our randomization is implemented at the company-level, our primary outcome variables are company-level indices (means) of these standardized effluent levels at the quarter-year level.