Primary Outcomes (explanation)
I will measure each farmer’s or intermediary’s technology as the frequency of practices that meet or exceed the standards fully recognized by GLOBAL GAP. The advantages of using this method are twofold. One, it is practical from the farmer’s and intermediary’s points of view since GLOBAL GAP certification is the primary requirement for entering most export markets in the world (UNCTD, 2007). Two, GLOBAL GAP provides a list of standardized practices that can be verified by outsiders, such as our survey team. Under this metric, technology level upgrading refers to an increase in the number of practices that satisfy the standards and practices approved by GLOBAL GAP. Profits will be constructed using revenue and costs collected through surveys.