Women's economic empowerment in South Kivu, DRC

Last registered on April 07, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Women's economic empowerment in South Kivu, DRC
Initial registration date
October 18, 2018

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 22, 2018, 12:47 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
April 07, 2023, 3:53 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.


Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
The goal of this study is to understand how to help marginalized women in conflict-affected countries move from poverty and isolation to self-sufficiency and empowerment. More specifically, we want to test two hypotheses. (1) Whether providing knowledge, skills, and resources can increase women’s self-confidence and create sustainable change in their lives and those of their families and communities. (2) Whether the above intervention is more effective if we also help the women’s husbands or fathers reflect on women-centered issues, such as women’s health and socio-economic empowerment.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Angelucci, Manuela and Rachel Heath. 2023. "Women's economic empowerment in South Kivu, DRC." AEA RCT Registry. April 07. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.3437-2.0
Former Citation
Angelucci, Manuela and Rachel Heath. 2023. "Women's economic empowerment in South Kivu, DRC." AEA RCT Registry. April 07. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/3437/history/176094
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
• Consumption (both household and woman’s consumption)
• Mental and physical health (including intimate partner violence)
• Bargaining power
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The key intervention is the WfWI core integrated twelve-month training program. Throughout the core program, women learn about the value of their work in the family and local economy, basic business skills, health and hygiene practices, their role in decision-making, women’s rights, and the benefits of working together in a group for social and economic purposes. The training is delivered to groups of 25 women at a time. Participants also receive a monthly stipend ($10 USD). Additionally, women also choose a vocational track to be trained in to develop and pursue a strong income-generating occupational activity, and are provided with referrals for health and other financial services.

In addition, half of the women in the treatment arm have been randomly assigned to receive Men’s Engagement Programming (MEP). This will take the form of the woman’s male spouse, partner, or other household member participating in 4 months of men’s discussion groups. In these groups, men will discuss topics including women’s economic empowerment, domestic violence, women’s health, and more. Couples who are identified to be at high risk for domestic violence will receive an additional 4 facilitated discussion sessions where both husband and wife are present.

2000 women were screened and identified as as eligible for WfWI programming following normal programmatic protocols, with additional women screened to be replacements. Specifically, the WfWI M&E team members go to the pre-identified local communities and explain the program and criteria to the local chiefs (socially and economically marginalized women, aged 18-55), who draw up a list of potential women in their villages and communities. The women are then individually screened by the WfWI’s M&E team on eligibility criteria which determine their social and/or economic vulnerabilities (e.g. husband passed away, single earner in household, unable to afford school fees for children). Women are then given an explanation of the program and asked to consider the commitment to participate fully and actively in all aspects of the program for a full year, work to earn an income, and save a portion of the cash stipend. In addition to meeting the inclusion criteria, and a willingness to participate in the program, the women must be receiving support from their family to attend the training, demonstrate their ability to participate in the programming without interference from a spouse and/or family, and be of adequate health to attend the 12-month training program. The women were from the following communities in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: Kamanyola, Nyangezi, Mumosho, and Ciheraoni-Luciga

The 2000 women then received the baseline survey, which took place from July 23 to August 16, 2017. 1000 of these women were then selected to receive treatment. We grouped the 2000 eligible into 80 clusters of 25 and assigned to a control (C) and treatment group (T) in equal proportions. Then, among the 40 clusters assigned to treatment, we cross-randomized 20 of these clusters into the MEP group.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
We randomized at the cluster level. Each cluster is a group of 25 women
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
40 clusters in the control group; 40 clusters in the treatment group. In addition, 20 of the 40 clusters in the treatment group receive an additional treatment (MEP)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB University of Texas at Austin
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents


MD5: 4ccbfbb686ea4a75a17449f40cd16f72

SHA1: 51e885c5bb401942cc9d6ed7507ac56875a5665c

Uploaded At: April 03, 2020


MD5: 913305aa5a0f1163dc41ee612e6e5cd7

SHA1: a5cac8578e69e549f6f3dabe51dd8268fbf32230

Uploaded At: October 18, 2018


Post Trial Information

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials