Primary Outcomes (explanation)
The study will involve 3 data collection rounds: baseline, endline 1 (right after the intervention ends) and endline 2 (six months after endline 1). Baseline data will be used to validate the assumptions, adapt the theories, re-estimate the power, and adjust the pre-analysis plans accordingly. Besides, balance tests will be performed on baseline data to check if randomization has resulted in groups similar in relevant covariates. We will use standard data analysis techniques used in randomization studies to measure the treatment effects (Khandker, B. Koolwal, & Samad, 2009).
Outcome variables for children:
A KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) questionnaires will be used to measure the knowledge of and attitude towards vegetable and fruit consumption. A FAV consumption frequency question will be included under “Practice”. The questionnaire will be carried out in a face-to-face interview with children.
To measure the consumption of fruits and vegetables at school, research assistants (RA) will observe the children during lunch time/afternoon snacks to fill in the school food diaries. The food diary will not only cover fruits and vegetables, but also other foods, to put fruit and vegetable consumption in the overall context of a diet.
Lunch time: The RAs will hand in the food trays (with stickers to identify the sampled children) with standardized portions. After children finish eating, they will collect the identified trays, measure the leftover (or extra food – the RA can see if he/she asks for extra food from the teacher/enumerator; and/or estimate the amount of food she/he was given by another student) and fill in the school food diaries for each children.
Afternoon break: The RAs will observe if the children pick up the provided food or take their home food and fill in the school food diary.
School food diaries will be done in 2 days: the day when the presentation is given, and 2 days afterwards.
To measure the consumption of fruits and vegetables at home, children will be instructed by RAs to fill in the home food diary at home themselves (with the parents’ help). The home food diaries will also be done in 2 days as per the school food diaries.
Outcome variables for parents:
A KAP survey for parents will be implemented to measure the knowledge and attitude towards fruits and vegetables consumption. The parents will be instructed by RAs to fill in the food diary themselves. The food diaries will also be done in 2 days as per the school food diaries.
The following variables/indicators will be used to assess the knowledge level on FAV:
- The number of incorrect/”do not know” answers to the questions on FAV
- The proportion of respondents who got all the answers on FAV correct
The following variables/indicators will be used to assess the attitude towards FAV:
- The scores on perceived barriers to FAV consumption
- The proportion of respondents who have X barriers to FAV consumption
- The score on perceived benefits of FAV consumption
- The proportion of respondents who recognize all the benefits of FAV consumption
- The score on perceived susceptibility to FAV insufficient consumption
- The proportion of respondents who considered themselves not eating enough FAV
- The score on food preference (“whether you like the taste” of FAV)
- The proportion of respondents who like the taste of FAV
The following variables/indicators will be used to assess consumption of fruits and vegetables
- Consumption (in grams) of the fruits and vegetables explicitly promoted in the activities – during lunch time
- Consumption (in grams) of the fruits and vegetables explicitly promoted in the activities – during afternoon break
- Total consumption (in grams) of fruits and vegetables consumed out of school in a day
- Total consumption (in grams) of fruits and vegetables in a day
- The share of FAV in total food consumption (in grams) (in %) in a day
- The share of FAV in total food consumption (in Kcal) (in %) in a day
- Daily frequency of FAV consumption
- Weekly frequency of FAV consumption