We conducted a phased-in randomised control trial in Maputo Province, Mozambique, to study the adoption of condoms, and to examine how intra-household bargaining affects the adoption of female condoms when they are introduced in a setting where only male condoms are widely available. Specifically, we assess the short-run impacts of the intervention on women who were assigned to participate in the programme in the second half of 2014, compared to women who were assigned to participate six months later. In addition to baseline and
endline data, we collected weekly sexual diary data for a subsample of the women. This allows us to investigate impacts at the sex-act level, including effects on the frequency of sex acts. To measure bargaining power, we collect information about assets brought by the woman to the relationship, and also use two different survey modules covering decision-making and power dynamics in the relationship.
Pathfinder International began its female condom programme in Matola in 2011. We expanded the programme to four additional neighbourhoods in 2014, using a phased-in experimental design. The healthcare workers who facilitated the programme first conducted
door-to-door recruitment to identify women willing to participate. The eligibility criteria were threefold: women needed to be between 18 and 49 years of age, sexually active, and not pregnant. All recruited women participated in a baseline survey.
Once the entire sample had responded to the baseline survey, participants were assigned to either the first or second wave of group sessions. Participants in the first wave constitute our treatment group. Participants in the second wave constitute our control group. Randomization was done at the level of the facilitator: half of the respondents recruited by each facilitator were allocated to the first round of sessions and half were allocated to the second round of sessions. The reason for stratifying on facilitator was to improve power, and to ensure that there would be enough space for treatment and control participants to attend sessions close to their home.
The treatment group then received the intervention from September-December 2014. The endline survey was conducted in February-March 2015, two to three months after treated individuals had received their last group session. Baseline participants (both treatment and control) were traced and administered the endline survey. Following the endline survey, the control group then received the intervention from
During the period between baseline and end of the intervention, a subsample of participants from both the treatment group and the control group participated in weekly coital/sexual diaries.