Primary Outcomes (end points)
Child level: Oral language (vocabulary, narrative and receptive language) will be measured by a battery of standardised assessments that are commonly used in the literature and administered to children individually. These measures have been standardised on a representative UK population and the BAS3 provides Rasch ability scores to ensure that progress can be benchmarked in relation to item difficulty. Using the BAS3 for both verbal and nonverbal outcomes has the added benefit of consistency of standardisation across key targeted and non-targeted skills.
The battery consists of: Naming Vocabulary and Verbal Comprehension subtests from the British Ability Scales: 3rd edition (BAS3; Elliot & Smith, 2012); a bespoke list of vocabulary words taken from the Object and Action Naming Battery (Druks & Masterson, 2000), sentence repetition from the Grammar and Phonology Screening test (GAPS; Gardner, Froud, McClelland & van der Lely, 2006) and the Bus Story test (Renfrew, 1995).
Additionally, parent report of child language will be measured by a shortened version of the Language Use Inventory (LUI; O’Neill, 2009)..
Setting level: Quality of classroom language learning environment, interactions and opportunities measured by observation using the Communication Supporting Classroom Observation Tool (CSCOT) (Dockrell et al., 2012), and the language scales of the Early Childhood Environment Rating (ECERS) scales (ECERS-3; Harms et al., 2015), the ECERS-E (Sylva et al., 2011) and the Sustained Shared Thinking and Emotional Wellbeing (SSTEW) scale (Siraj et al., 2015). Staff knowledge and attitudes will be measured by a bespoke questionnaire
Setting measures: Following previous work (Mathers et al., in progress), a subset of relevant scales from the ECERS-3, ECERS-E and SSTEW rating scales will be complemented by the communication supporting classrooms tool (Dockrell et al., 2015) which examine language-learning opportunities and interactions.
Social emotional behavioural development: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997) is our proposed measure given its strong psychometric properties and availability in the range of languages. Parents and teachers will be asked to complete the questionnaire.