First, we selected three districts in Western Uganda (Kasese, Kyenjojo and Kabarole), three districts in central Uganda (Mukono, Masaka and Mityana) and three districts in Eastern Uganda (Mbale, Iganga and Jinja).
In these districts we identified 454 communities containing at least one nursery school. To identify eligible households, we conducted a census in September 2018 in each of the 454 communities.
To be eligible, a household has to satisfy three criteria: (i) the female caregiver should be present within the household (e.g. mother or grandmother), (ii) the household should have one (and only one) child in the age range 3-5 and (iii) the children shouldn’t already be attending full time childcare (but we allowed for children attending part-time child-care).
We also wanted to have a sufficiently large group of households both with and without younger siblings (below 3 years old). To that end we restricted the study samples to villages that have at least three households that satisfy the three criteria and do not have younger siblings, and at least one household that satisfies the three criteria and has younger siblings.
Finally, from the list of eligible households, we randomly selected 1496 in 400 communities to participate in the baseline survey.
The baseline was conducted in November and December 2018 and consisted of two surveys: a “household” survey and a “childhood development” survey. The two surveys were conducted by separate teams. The respondent for the household survey was the main female caregiver of the target child.
The household survey collected four main categories of information: (i) The socio-economic status of the household, including detailed information on business ownership (where applicable), assets, financial loans and savings; (ii) labor supply of the respondent and other household members; (iii) time use of the mother, father, and/or other main caregivers of the target child; and (iv) data on attitudes towards risk, happiness, stress, social attitudes and financial literacy.
The childhood development survey collected information on the target child using the International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA) instrument developed by Save the Children. The tool consists of a battery of questions and tests that aim to measure the level of competency or mastery that children possess across four domains - motor skills, early literacy, early numeracy and socio-emotional skills.
We will conduct three follow-up surveys:
July-August 2019: Short-run follow-up survey – We will collect information on a limited set of outcomes from the household survey, but will not collect data on childhood development outcomes. From the households, we will collect the following information: questions related to the socio-economic status (excluding information related to loans and savings), time use of the mother, father, and/or other main caregivers of the target child and information on happiness and stress.
November-December 2019: Midline survey – We will collect data on the same set of indicators as at baseline, including the childhood development survey.
November-December 2020: Midline survey – We will collect data on the same set of indicators as at baseline and midline, including the childhood development survey.
Following the baseline survey, we randomized the 1496 households that were surveyed into the four different groups: C, T1, T2 and T3.
The randomization was conducted at the individual level. The following variables were used as randomization strata: district indicators, an indicator for whether the target child has younger siblings, whether the target child was already attending daycare at baseline, respondent’s occupation at baseline, and whether the mother of the target child resided in the same household at baseline.
As a result, out of the 1496 households that were part of the baseline survey, 363 were randomly allocated to T1, 364 to T2, 357 to T3 and 412 to C. These are not symmetric, because the number of observations differed across strata and it was not always divisible by four.