effectiveness of Mindset program on university students: academic emotion, passion, and perceived behavioral control and school belongingness

Last registered on April 06, 2021

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
effectiveness of Mindset program on university students: academic emotion, passion, and perceived behavioral control and school belongingness
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0004579
Initial registration date
August 20, 2019

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
August 20, 2019, 9:32 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
April 06, 2021, 12:10 AM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.

Locations

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
tehran university

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Lorestan University, khorramabad, Iran

Additional Trial Information

Status
Completed
Start date
2019-08-25
End date
2019-11-17
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Beliefs about the malleability of attributes, also known as mindsets, have been studied for decades in social-personality psychology and education. Here, I review the many applications of mindset theory to clinical psychology and psychotherapy
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Nazari, Nabi and shadmehr rastin. 2021. "effectiveness of Mindset program on university students: academic emotion, passion, and perceived behavioral control and school belongingness." AEA RCT Registry. April 06. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.4579
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
exercises were selected and presented to participants in the following order:

Day 1: How would you treat a friend? (Gilbert 2010, p. 48; Neff 2017; Rockman and Hurley 2015, p. 5). This task was designed to evoke insight into different approaches people commonly use for treating friends and themselves during adversity and then help them to turn the more compassionate language, people usually have for their friends, towards themselves.

Day 2: Compassionate letter to myself (Gilbert 2010, p. 81; Neff 2017; Rockman and Hurley 2015, p. 22). This task involved writing about what you don’t like about yourself and how this makes you feel. The second part of the task was to imagine a compassionate friend and using their perspective, write about how this friend views your flaws.

Day 3: Letting go of a painful memory from your childhood (1st part). This task involved writing a letter from yourself as a child expressing your past pain (Halamová 2013, p. 69).

Day 4: Letting go of a painful memory from childhood (2nd part). This task involved writing a letter from one’s own perspective as an adult to themselves as a child and it was designed to enable one to express compassion and protective anger towards themselves as a child (Halamová 2013, p. 69)

Day 5: Letting go of a painful memory from childhood (3rd part). This task was to read the letter from the adult as they would do if they were a child again and to respond from the child’s perspective expressing their emotions and needs. The final exercise of this task was to respond to the child’s needs from the adult perspective (Halamová 2013, p. 69)

Day 6: Expressing protective anger (modified from Berg 2012, p. 19; Greenberg and Warwar 2006, p. 193–4; Halamová 2013, p. 57). This task involved recalling an event when someone was critical towards you or was shaming you and to imagine how your close friend would defend or protect you, then reformulate the same protective response from your perspective to the self. This task was designed to enable participants to express their protective anger.

Day 7: Expressing compassion towards the self (modified from Berg 2012, p. 21; Greenberg and Warwar 2006, p. 194; Halamová 2013, p. 59). This task involved recalling a self-critical event and imagining that this had happened to a vulnerable child. Participants were instructed to be compassionate towards the child and then turn the same compassionate response towards the self.

Day 8: Self-compassionate mirror. This task required participants to look in the mirror at the end of the day and be self-compassionate about pleasant or unpleasant events which may have occurred during the day followed by an expressive writing task to write about this experience. This task was designed to promote the experience of self-compassion (inspired by Petrocchi et al. 2017).

Day 9: Compassionate friend (Gilbert 2009; Rockman and Hurley 2015, p. 35). This task involved imagining that a compassionate friend is coming to visit you and when they arrive, they tell you all the things you need to hear at this moment in your life and they present you with a gift that has a special meaning for you.

Day 10: Self-compassion break (Neff 2017; Rockman and Hurley 2015, p. 7). This task involved recalling a stressful experience and putting your hand on your heart and saying to yourself that it is a moment of suffering, reason that other people suffer too and that you can still be kind to yourself. Participants are then instructed to write about their experience.

Day 11: Self-compassionate language (Rockman and Hurley 2015, p. 8). During this task participants were instructed to list their typical criticisms and reframe them into compassionate words towards themselves.

Day 12: Self-compassion in daily life (Germer 2016). This task involved searching for new ways to be more self-compassionate on a physical, emotional, rational, social, and spiritual level and writing about these new approaches.

Day 13: Self-compassion in everyday life. During day 14, participants were instructed to practice the new self-compassionate ways they identified on day 13 and write about their experience of using these new approaches in the evening.

Day 14: Thanksgiving. The final task involved making a list of as many things as possible that you are grateful for in your life (this task is similar to the Appreciation exercise by Gilbert 2010 and Appreciating Yourself by Germer and Neff 2013 and Rockman and Hurley 2015)
Intervention Start Date
2019-09-02
Intervention End Date
2019-10-31

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Self-compassionate responding
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Academic emotion questionnaire

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Self-uncompassionate responding
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Participants are recruited from the general community through social media, social networking sites and health and well-being forums. t. The data collected are in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
all participants are randomly assigned to control and eft group.paralleled single blind study has been designed.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
computerized 1:1
Randomization Unit
individual
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
250
Sample size: planned number of observations
400
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
3 university
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Lorestan
IRB Approval Date
2018-12-04
IRB Approval Number
iau85212

Post-Trial

Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Intervention

Is the intervention completed?
No
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?
No

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials