Using Retrieval Practice to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes
Last registered on January 24, 2020


Trial Information
General Information
Using Retrieval Practice to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes
Initial registration date
January 23, 2020
Last updated
January 24, 2020 3:59 PM EST

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Primary Investigator
B4Development Foundation
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Additional Trial Information
In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
The program uses football to introduce key issues around inclusion and has a goal to increase participants’ self-awareness and awareness of others, social skills and their sense of belonging and self-worth. Students participate in football training sessions and each time they learn a group of three keywords reflecting social skills needed to inspire inclusion, such as teamwork, communication, and respect. At the end of each training session, students get to reflect/ debrief on these words. The objective of the study is to assess whether adding puzzle retrieval practice to the usual debrief, can facilitate learning and improve students’ recall of the keywords, compared to the usual keyword debrief used in the program.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Makki, Fadi. 2020. "Using Retrieval Practice to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes." AEA RCT Registry. January 24.
Experimental Details
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
The outcomes of interest are the following:
1. Number of keywords remembered in Quiz 1
2. Number of keywords remembered in Final Quiz
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
1. Oneness survey result
2. Change in tone between the two prompts ("I used to think" and "Now I think") in participants’ replies
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Oneness survey will be used prior to and post program delivery, whereby participants will be asked how connected they feel to other classmates, PE teachers, and schools.
2. . Each participant will be asked to write down an answer to the prompt: “I used to think …” and “Now I think …” with social inclusion in mind. The purpose of those open-ended questions is to allow participants to reflect on what they learned about social inclusion and related matters during the program and how their beliefs changed throughout the program. The written answers to both prompts will be analysed using IMB's Tone Analyser.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Coaches that deliver the program will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control group. In this way, students of the schools that are assigned to coaches in the control group will receive the program with no alterations. i.e. reflection/debrief on the keywords at the end of each session as usual. Same way, students of the schools that are assigned to coaches in the treatment group will along with the usual session debrief/reflection receive the retrieval practice in a form of of a puzzle. At the end of the first three sessions, each class of the students in the treatment school will be divided into three smaller groups and each group will be asked to combine one of the three different sets of puzzle pieces that spell three keywords taught during each session.

Prior to Session 4, both the students in control and treatment condition will be given Quiz 1, i.e. they will be asked to choose the keywords they learned about during Sessions 1, 2, and 3 among a list of words.

At the end of the cycle (i.e., prior to session 10), both groups will be given the final quiz that will consist of a list of words, out of which, students will be required to pick out all the keywords learned during the previous 9 sessions of the program.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomisation will be done in office by a computer using STATA program.
Randomization Unit
Unit of randomisation is individual (coach).
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
29 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
1160 - 1450 students
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
14 schools in treatment, 15 schools in control. In all schools, 2 classes will participate in the program.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
Solutions Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number