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Using Commitment Device to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes
Last registered on March 25, 2020


Trial Information
General Information
Using Commitment Device to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes
Initial registration date
October 12, 2019
Last updated
March 25, 2020 4:09 AM EDT
Primary Investigator
B4Development Foundation
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Additional Trial Information
In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Through the delivery of comprehensive football for development training and the involvement of school students, this program is reaching out and educating young people in countries with identified need, on what it takes to be truly inclusive. Out on these pitches, football plays an important role in making teammates of people from different backgrounds. The program has 10-12 sessions delivered as Physical Education class for school students aged 8-12 years. During the delivery of the program, coaches and PE teachers confront the issue of commitment and engagement of participants in the program, which hinders the learning process. The objective of the study is to test whether signing a commitment card with a set of rules, such as following instructions and wearing sports outfit, can increase students’ commitment to the program, compared to students that will not be asked to sign the commitment card.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Makki, Fadi. 2020. "Using Commitment Device to Improve Football for Development Program Outcomes ." AEA RCT Registry. March 25. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.4751-1.2000000000000002.
Experimental Details
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
There are three primary outcomes that will be measured: 1) On Time / With Outfit, 2) Active Participation, 3) Respect.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
In the commitment evaluation booklet, PE teachers will measure the following:
1. On Time / With Outfit
PE teachers to mark "1" if a student came on time to a session and is wearing appropriate outfit and shoes (sports outfit and sports shoes). If not, they would mark "0".
2. Active Participation
PE teachers to mark "1" if a student is actively participating in a session. This means that student is engaging in the activities set by the coach/PE teacher AND not Attending other matters during a session. Mark "0" if not.
PE Teachers to mark "1" if a student is showing respect . This means that student is:1.Following the instructions, 2. Listening, 3. Not Swearing or fighting, 4. Not behaving in any other way which is distracting for teacher/coach or other students
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
1. Oneness survey result
2. Change in tone between the two prompts ("I used to think" and "Now I think") in participants’ replies
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Oneness survey will be used prior to and post program delivery, whereby participants will be asked how connected they feel to other classmates, PE teachers, and schools.
2. . Each participant will be asked to write down an answer to the prompt: “I used to think …” and “Now I think …” with social inclusion in mind. The purpose of those open-ended questions is to allow participants to reflect on what they learned about social inclusion and related matters during the program and how their beliefs changed throughout the program. The written answers to both prompts will be analysed using a Tone Analyser from IMB.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Students participating in the football for development program will be randomly assigned to control and treatment group. Participants in the control group would receive the program as usual while participants in the treatment group would in addition to the program as usual, receive a commitment card with a list of five rules and would be asked to commit to respect those rules by singing the card. Participants in the treatment group will be asked to read the rules on the commitment card, pledge to follow those rules by signing it, and keep the cards with them.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomisation will be done in office by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Unit of randomisation is school.
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
50 schools -21 international and 29 government schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
International schools - 11 treatment, 10 control
Government schools - 14 control, 15 treatment
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
Solutions Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Is the intervention completed?
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)