Gender and Norm Violations

Last registered on December 11, 2019


Trial Information

General Information

Gender and Norm Violations
Initial registration date
December 11, 2019

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
December 11, 2019, 11:47 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

University of Cologne

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Cologne

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
We study the mechanism behind differential punishment of men and women for similar norm violations.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Rockenbach, Bettina and Sebastian Schneiders. 2019. "Gender and Norm Violations." AEA RCT Registry. December 11.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
We examine gender differences in:
- behavioral social norms, incentivized
- emotions (especially anger and surprise) towards norm violators, self-reported
- punishment of norm violators, incentivized
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Social dilemma game, variation of interaction partners' gender
Experimental Design Details
We study a social dilemma context, in which third-party observers evaluate choices of players who defected in a prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG). In an online experiment with US subjects using Qualtrics and Prolific, we vary the gender of the observer and the gender of the players as treatments in a between-subjects design (equal numbers of male and female observers evaluate one of four different types of pairs who played the PDG: MM, MF, FM, and FF). We elicit behavioral social norms in the PDG using an incentivized Krupka-Weber coordination game. After revealing the choices of the players in the PDG, we elicit observers’ emotions towards the defector. Finally, we measure punishment of norm violators in an incentivized way. We propose a gender difference in expectations of norm compliance as a new explanation for this effect and hypothesize that men enjoy greater behavioral flexibility than women given the same underlying social norms. Other possible explanations include gendered behavioral social norms, gendered social norms on who may punish whom and gendered fear of counter-punishment. Our design enables us to test and rule out competing explanations.
Randomization Method
Random assignment to treatment in qualtrics
Randomization Unit
Treatment will be randomized at the individual level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
No clustering: the experiment in one-shot and there is no interaction before choices are made.
Sample size: planned number of observations
800 individual observations, 400 male and 400 female participants
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
100 male and 100 female participants in each of the four treatments MM, MF, FM, and FF.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Gesellschaft für experimentelle Wirtschaftsforschung e.V.
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials