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Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries
Last registered on June 09, 2020

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0005933
Initial registration date
June 08, 2020
Last updated
June 09, 2020 12:04 PM EDT
Location(s)

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Primary Investigator
Affiliation
World Bank
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Food Programme
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
American University
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2020-09-01
End date
2024-06-30
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Can equalizing market opportunities for men and women contribute to closing the gender gap in autonomy? We randomize participation in and participant gender for WFP cash-for-work programs that target poor households in 6 countries. We leverage this variation to estimate the impacts of women's participation in the program, adjusting for household impacts of program participation, on women's autonomy.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Christian, Paul et al. 2020. "Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries." AEA RCT Registry. June 09. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.5933-1.0.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
The program of interest in all countries is a version of WFP's cash-for-assets (CFA) program. CFA functions similarly to cash-for-work programs, in that households are paid a transfer conditional on participating in household level or community work. Exact details vary by
context. The programs are described as "cash-for-assets" because the work component is intended to produce an asset that generates sustained increases in income or welfare for the household or the community, with examples of work ranging from rehabilitating feeder roads to constructing improved latrines to caring for livestock.
Intervention Start Date
2020-10-01
Intervention End Date
2023-12-31
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
consumption, earnings, time use, agency, attitudes, perception of norms, well being
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Consumption: Measured as predicted household consumption from the household's expenditures, with coefficients used for prediction estimated in a household survey with a full consumption module from the same context.

Time Use: Time spent outside the home (men and women), time spent working in self-employment (men and women), time spent working for a salary (men and women), time spent working on chores (men and women).

Agency: Standardized indices over agency over consumption, and agency over women's time use.

Attitudes: Standardized indices over women's attitudes towards women's time use, and women's attitudes towards women's agency. In contexts where it is feasible to also survey men, men's attitudes towards women's time use and men's attitudes towards women's agency are included.

Perception of Norms: Standardized indices over perceptions of norms over women's time use, perceptions of norms over women's agency, perceptions of norms over attitudes towards women's time use, and perceptions of norms over attitudes towards women's agency. In contexts where it is feasible to also survey men, men's attitudes towards women's time use and men's attitudes towards women's agency are included.

Well Being: Locus of control score. Standardized index over {affect, life satisfaction score, PHQ9 score}. Standardized index over {standardized index of psychological abuse, standardized index of physical abuse, standardized index of sexual abuse}. Standardized index over preferences over consumption. Standardized index over preferences over time use.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Outcomes for WFP M&E
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
In each country, standard indicators will be collected for WFP M&E. These will be used exclusively for reports to WFP.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
All experimental designs build on random assignment of households or communities to treatment arms which vary whether women participate in CFA, with additional arms to adjust for household or community level impacts of the CFA program. This allows us to estimate the impacts of participation (modeled as a shift in women's wages) on intra-household decision-making.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
varies by context, either household or community
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
TBD
Sample size: planned number of observations
TBD
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
TBD
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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