Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries

Last registered on January 20, 2022

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0005933
Initial registration date
June 08, 2020

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
June 09, 2020, 12:04 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
January 20, 2022, 10:44 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.

Locations

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Primary Investigator

Affiliation
The World Bank

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
American University
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Food Programme
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank

Additional Trial Information

Status
In development
Start date
2020-09-01
End date
2024-06-30
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
Can equalizing market opportunities for men and women contribute to closing the gender gap in autonomy? We randomize participation in and participant gender for WFP cash-for-work programs that target poor households in 6 countries. We leverage this variation to estimate the impacts of women's participation in the program, adjusting for household impacts of program participation, on women's autonomy.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Christian, Paul et al. 2022. "Gender gaps in earnings and economic empowerment: Experimental evidence from 6 countries." AEA RCT Registry. January 20. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.5933
Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
The program of interest in all countries is a version of WFP's cash-for-assets (CFA) program. CFA functions similarly to cash-for-work programs, in that households are paid a transfer conditional on participating in household level or community work. Exact details vary by
context. The programs are described as "cash-for-assets" because the work component is intended to produce an asset that generates sustained increases in income or welfare for the household or the community, with examples of work ranging from rehabilitating feeder roads to constructing improved latrines to caring for livestock.
Intervention Start Date
2020-10-01
Intervention End Date
2023-12-31

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
consumption, earnings, time use, agency, attitudes, perception of norms, well being
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Consumption: Measured as predicted household consumption from the household's expenditures, with coefficients used for prediction estimated in a household survey with a full consumption module from the same context.

Time Use: Time spent outside the home (men and women), time spent working in self-employment (men and women), time spent working for a salary (men and women), time spent working on chores (men and women).

Agency: Standardized indices over agency over consumption, and agency over women's time use.

Attitudes: Standardized indices over women's attitudes towards women's time use, and women's attitudes towards women's agency. In contexts where it is feasible to also survey men, men's attitudes towards women's time use and men's attitudes towards women's agency are included.

Perception of Norms: Standardized indices over perceptions of norms over women's time use, perceptions of norms over women's agency, perceptions of norms over attitudes towards women's time use, and perceptions of norms over attitudes towards women's agency. In contexts where it is feasible to also survey men, men's attitudes towards women's time use and men's attitudes towards women's agency are included.

Well Being: Locus of control score. Standardized index over {affect, life satisfaction score, PHQ9 score}. Standardized index over {standardized index of psychological abuse, standardized index of physical abuse, standardized index of sexual abuse}. Standardized index over preferences over consumption. Standardized index over preferences over time use.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Outcomes for WFP M&E
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
In each country, standard indicators will be collected for WFP M&E. These will be used exclusively for reports to WFP.

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
All experimental designs build on random assignment of households or communities to treatment arms which vary whether women participate in CFA, with additional arms to adjust for household or community level impacts of the CFA program. This allows us to estimate the impacts of participation (modeled as a shift in women's wages) on intra-household decision-making.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
varies by context, either household or community
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
El Salvador: 75 sites/communities
Rwanda: 78 villages
Sample size: planned number of observations
El Salvador: 1500 households Rwanda: 1173 households
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
El Salvador: 25 sites/communities Control, 25 sites/communities UCT (Male), 25 sites/communities FFA (Female)
Rwanda: 26 villages Control, 26 villages FFA (Mixed), 26 villages FFA (Female)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Solutions IRB
IRB Approval Date
2020-12-22
IRB Approval Number
2020/07/27
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents

Cash_and_gender_20211111.pdf

MD5: 95a687469dfd5d9d6ddb865002b8e6c4

SHA1: 2c71836874bd6850c5676ae99bf85c1251eca00c

Uploaded At: November 11, 2021