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Gender Discrimination elicited in the general population of the United States.
Last registered on June 26, 2020

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Gender Discrimination elicited in the general population of the United States.
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0006025
Initial registration date
June 20, 2020
Last updated
June 26, 2020 3:05 PM EDT
Location(s)

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Primary Investigator
Affiliation
FAIR - NHH
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
IIES - Institute for International Economic Studies, Stockholm University
PI Affiliation
IIES - Institute for International Economic Studies, Stockholm University
PI Affiliation
World Bank, Governance Global Practice
PI Affiliation
SOFI - Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2020-06-22
End date
2021-08-22
Secondary IDs
Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, KVA (SO2018-0034); Handelsbanken's Research Foundations (P2017-0243:1) Stiftelsen Lars Hiertas Minne (FO2015-0725), The Swedish Research Council 2015-02112, The Norwegian Research Council, FRIHUMSAM, Young Research Talent, project no 250415, The Swedish Research Council, General Research Project, Diary no 2015-02112
Abstract
We study gender discrimination in hiring decisions in a representative sample from the United States. Participants are incentivized to choose between two candidates, one male, one female, to write an advertizing slogan for a product. They see information about the candidates, as well a sample of past work (a slogan for another product). Past work was either performed alone or in a team. Our first study will examine how discrimination varies between individual and teamwork settings, varying team composition, gender stereotypes attached to the products, and two policies aimed at reducing discrimination. Our second study will examine discrimination in the aggregate and how it varies with exposure to shocks during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Sandberg, Anna et al. 2020. "Gender Discrimination elicited in the general population of the United States.." AEA RCT Registry. June 26. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6025-2.0.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
Employers are shown information about two candidates (one female and one male) and asked to indicate which candidate they want to hire to come up with an advertisement slogan individually. The information includes the candidate’s fictional name, education level, work experience, and the slogan they produced (either individually or in a team). The gender of the candidate, and, in case of a team work evaluation, their co-worker's gender, is conveyed through virtual names and an avatar showing a silhouette of a man or a woman. Education is measured in three categories: “High School or less”, “Some College education”, and “College degree or more”. Experience is also measured in three categories: “Up to 1 year”, “1 to 3 years” and “3 years or more”. We tell the participants that we do not use workers’ real name.

We randomize:

1. Whether the slogan is produced individually or in a team. (Individual vs. Team treatment)

2. The gender of the co-workers of the candidates in the “Team work” treatment. In particular, we vary whether the employer chooses between (i) a male candidate with a female co-worker and a female candidate with a male co-worker, (ii) a male candidate with a male co-worker and a female candidate with a female co-worker, (iii) a male candidate with a male co-worker and a female candidate with a male co worker, and (iv) a male candidate with a female co-worker and a female candidate with a female co-worker.

3. Which information/instructions the employer observes (a “Baseline”-, a “Hidden gender”-, and a “Cognition” treatment). In the “Hidden gender” treatment, all information about the gender of the candidates (and, under the “Team work” treatment, their co-workers) is removed from the resume. In the “Cognition” treatment, before making their hiring decision participants are forced to reflect on the productivity weight they give to the candidate they hire and as well as their co-worker.

4. Whether the products are stereotypically male or stereotypically female.

To reduce the total number of treatments, and increase statistical power, the ``Hidden gender''- and ``Cognition'' treatments are only implemented under the ``Team work'' treatment for stereotypically male products. Further, all four combinations of candidate/co-worker gender are only implemented under the ``Baseline'' treatment for stereotypically male products.
Intervention Start Date
2020-06-22
Intervention End Date
2020-08-22
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Employers' hiring decision of candidates.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
All primary outcomes can be observed directly from the data.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
No secondary outcomes considered at this time.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
No secondary outcomes considered at this time.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
We conduct an experiment structured in three stages, a Work stage, an Evaluation stage and an Employer stage. For the first stage, we use Amazon's Mechanical Turk to recruit participants. The other stages are conducted in collaboration with the Gallup Panel, a representative sample of U.S. adults. The stages contain the following procedures:

Work stage - Task 1: Workers work individually and propose a slogan for an advertising campaign for a product.

Work stage - Task 2: Workers work individually or in teams (depending on treatment) and propose a slogan for an advertising campaign for a different product.

Evaluation stage: Evaluators evaluate the quality of the slogans proposed during Task 1 and Task 2 of the Work stage.

Payment of workers: Workers from the Work stage are paid according to the evaluations received by their proposed slogans in the Evaluation stage.

Employment stage - Hiring decision: Employers choose whom to hire from a set of two candidates, observing the slogan produced during Task 2 of the Work stage.

Payment of employers: Employers are paid according to the evaluations (from the Evaluation stage) of the slogan proposed during Task 1 by the person they hire.

Survey: Participants reveal whether they have experienced any negative labor market shocks during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Disclaimer: We will submit the pre-analysis plan in the next version of the trial registry and before we receive data from the survey provider.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Pseudorandom number generator managed by Gallup.
Randomization Unit
All randomization happens at the individual level.
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
We sample units at the individual level.
Sample size: planned number of observations
In total we target 4,450 employers.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
• 400 per product pair for individual work
• 400 per product pair for mixed teams
• 125 per male stereotypical product pair for mixed- vs same-gender teams
• 125 per male stereotypical product pair for same-gender vs same-gender teams
• 125 per male stereotypical product pair to be used in the hidden gender policy treatment
• 125 per male stereotypical product pair to be used in the cognition policy treatment
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Gallup Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
2020-04-01
IRB Approval Number
N/A
Analysis Plan
Analysis Plan Documents
ANALYSIS PLAN

MD5: e35aee23927841732fe71d56c2ed8031

SHA1: 56c5a506e683fd2d7e95ac0bc6fc3b996faf5522

Uploaded At: June 26, 2020