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Targeting men, women or both? Changing outcomes for adolescent girls
Initial registration date
June 29, 2020
June 30, 2020 12:13 PM EDT
Utrecht University School of Economics
Other Primary Investigator(s)
Centre for Economic Research in Pakistan
Institute for Fiscal Studies
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Additional Trial Information
This research project aims to understand to what extent edutainment targeted at men, at women, or at both jointly, changes attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behavior about child marriage and education for girls. We conduct a cluster randomized control trial in 177 rural villages in Pakistan where villages are randomly assigned to either receive no edutainment intervention, edutainment targeted at men and boys, edutainment targeted at women and girls, or edutainment targeted at both genders. The intervention is delivered by Oxfam Pakistan in collaboration with its local implementing partners. In each village, we collect baseline and endline data, as well as longitudinal village-level administrative data on marriages and education. Per village we survey 10 randomly selected households with adolescent children, and per household we survey male and female caregivers, as well as one female or male adolescent child. Each household member also takes part in lab-in-the-field experiments through which we elicit individual beliefs, as well as their preferences for investments in the adolescent child.
Our interventions took place in Shikarpur and Larkana districts of Sindh Province, and Lodhran and Muzaffargarh districts of Punjab province in Pakistan. Joint with Oxfam Pakistan, our local implementing partners Indus Resource Centre (IRC) and Bedari prepared a movie of a theatre show that addressed child marriage and girls’ education. IRC and Bedari then visited each intervention village and organized a movie screening that was followed by a group discussion. In each village, during a subsequent visit, IRC and Bedari organized another structured discussion about the content of the movie. After each session, our research team conducted a small evaluation exit survey with randomly chosen participants.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Girls’ education (attitudes, beliefs, norms, behaviors)
Marriage (attitudes, beliefs, norms, behaviors)
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Violence against women and girls (attitudes, beliefs, norms, behaviors)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
We conduct a randomized control trial in 177 villages of Sindh and Punjab provinces in Pakistan to investigate how edutainment interventions affect attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behavior about child marriage, education for girls, and violence against women and girls (VAWG). The villages are randomly assigned into four treatment groups to enable a rigorous evaluation of the impact of the programme:
T1. targeting the intervention at men and boys only, T2. targeting the intervention at women and girls only, T3. targeting the intervention at both genders, and T4. a control group with no intervention until after the end-line survey.
Experimental Design Details
After the baseline survey, we randomly assigned villages to one of the four treatment groups: ‘men and boys only’ edutainment intervention (“T1” villages), ‘women and girls only’ edutainment intervention (“T2” villages), edutainment intervention targeted at ‘both genders’ (“T3” villages) and a control group (“T4” villages) where no intervention activities were offered. We used Mahalanobis distance matching techniques to randomly assign villages to one of the four treatment arms, stratified by province.
The unit of treatment randomization was the village-level.
Was the treatment clustered?
Sample size: planned number of clusters
Planned number of units: 179 villages (80 villages in Sindh Province and 99 villages in Punjab Province). Due to logistical issues, two villages in Punjab were dropped from the study. Our final number of clusters is hence 177 villages (80 villages in Sindh Province, with 20 villages assigned to each of the four treatment arms, and 97 villages in Punjab Province of which 25 villages in the “women and girls only” treatment arm and 24 villages in each of the other three arms).
Sample size: planned number of observations
Planned number of observations: 1,770 households (10 households in each of the 177 villages – with 3 respondents per household: adult male, adult female, and either an unmarried adolescent boy or an unmarried adolescent girl). Due to their small size, some villages did not comprise sufficient households with adolescent teenagers, leading to a final sample size of 1,716 households.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Treatment arm 1 (men and boys only): 44 villages
Treatment arm 2 (women and girls only): 45 villages Treatment arm 3 (both genders): 44 villages Control arm (no intervention): 44 villages
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
Social Sciences & Humanities Interdivisional Research Ethics Committee (University of Oxford)
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number