Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma

Last registered on July 21, 2020


Trial Information

General Information

Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma
Initial registration date
July 20, 2020
Last updated
July 21, 2020, 11:56 AM EDT


Primary Investigator

Duke University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
RIDIE ID-5a125fecae423
This study investigates the costs of sexual harassment using crowdsourced data collected on public transport in Rio de Janeiro.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Cardoso de Andrade, Luiza et al. 2020. "Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma." AEA RCT Registry. July 21.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
* Takeup of women-only car
* Reported harassment
* Implicit Association D-score
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We recruit 363 Brazilian women who commute daily to crowdsource data on approximately 22,000 of their rides. We first elicit their revealed preferences for a women reserved space by varying the price paid for reporting on the women reserved space or public space. We then randomly assign riders across spaces to measure differences in the incidence of harassment. We exploit within-commuter variation in opportunity costs and location generated by these experiments to provide a low-bound estimate of the cost of sexual harassment in public transit. We then administer social norm surveys and Implicit Associations Tests on a random sample of men and women commuters to document a potential general equilibrium effect of reserved spaces: stigma against women who choose to ride in the public space.

The experiment is run through a crowdsourcing application that tasks women commuters to repeatedly report on riding conditions. The application allows us to vary the assigned location (reserved vs public space), pay-out and data collection tasks across rides.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization conducted automatically through crowdsourcing app.
Randomization Unit
Each woman rider is offered a series of tasks, which entail riding the train and reporting on their experience during that ride. Using this setup women are first invited to rider either car type at differential payoffs, which result in a variation of opportunity costs of riding the reserved space each time they ride. The sequence of opportunity costs is unknown to the participants, but the same for all. In a next phase, women are invited to ride on either the reserved or public space for a series of rides. The order in which either car type is offered is random for each individual.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
363 women; 21,660 rides
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Price experiment:
Zero opportunity cost: 8,578 rides
5 US cent opportunity cost: 2,312 rides
10 US cent opportunity cost: 5,111 rides
20 US cent opportunity cost: 1,763 rides

Randomized assignment of car:
2,019 assigned to public car
1,877 assigned to women-only car
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Study has received IRB approval. Details not available.
IRB Approval Date
Details not available
IRB Approval Number
Details not available


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Collection Completion Date
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials