x

Please fill out this short user survey of only 3 questions in order to help us improve the site. We appreciate your feedback!
Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma
Last registered on July 21, 2020

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0006142
Initial registration date
July 20, 2020
Last updated
July 21, 2020 11:56 AM EDT
Location(s)
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
Duke University
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
Additional Trial Information
Status
Completed
Start date
2015-08-01
End date
2020-06-03
Secondary IDs
RIDIE ID-5a125fecae423
Abstract
This study investigates the costs of sexual harassment using crowdsourced data collected on public transport in Rio de Janeiro.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Cardoso de Andrade, Luiza et al. 2020. "Demand for "Safe Spaces": Avoiding Harassment and Stigma." AEA RCT Registry. July 21. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6142-1.0.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
Intervention Start Date
2015-12-14
Intervention End Date
2017-02-17
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
* Takeup of women-only car
* Reported harassment
* Implicit Association D-score
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
We recruit 363 Brazilian women who commute daily to crowdsource data on approximately 22,000 of their rides. We first elicit their revealed preferences for a women reserved space by varying the price paid for reporting on the women reserved space or public space. We then randomly assign riders across spaces to measure differences in the incidence of harassment. We exploit within-commuter variation in opportunity costs and location generated by these experiments to provide a low-bound estimate of the cost of sexual harassment in public transit. We then administer social norm surveys and Implicit Associations Tests on a random sample of men and women commuters to document a potential general equilibrium effect of reserved spaces: stigma against women who choose to ride in the public space.

The experiment is run through a crowdsourcing application that tasks women commuters to repeatedly report on riding conditions. The application allows us to vary the assigned location (reserved vs public space), pay-out and data collection tasks across rides.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization conducted automatically through crowdsourcing app.
Randomization Unit
Each woman rider is offered a series of tasks, which entail riding the train and reporting on their experience during that ride. Using this setup women are first invited to rider either car type at differential payoffs, which result in a variation of opportunity costs of riding the reserved space each time they ride. The sequence of opportunity costs is unknown to the participants, but the same for all. In a next phase, women are invited to ride on either the reserved or public space for a series of rides. The order in which either car type is offered is random for each individual.
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
N/A
Sample size: planned number of observations
363 women; 21,660 rides
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Price experiment:
Zero opportunity cost: 8,578 rides
5 US cent opportunity cost: 2,312 rides
10 US cent opportunity cost: 5,111 rides
20 US cent opportunity cost: 1,763 rides

Randomized assignment of car:
2,019 assigned to public car
1,877 assigned to women-only car
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Study has received IRB approval. Details not available.
IRB Approval Date
Details not available
IRB Approval Number
Details not available
Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Yes
Data Collection Completion Date
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Yes
Program Files
Program Files
Yes
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS