Primary Outcomes (end points)
Improved family inputs and home environment should support child development, and they are key first-order outcomes of our proposed intervention. To capture family inputs, enumerators will record parenting attitudes and items from UNICEF’s Family Care Indicators (Kariger et al., 2012) to capture the quality of the home environment. To measure parental knowledge (mothers and fathers) about child development, we will select items from the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI) (MacPhee, 1981). We will also assess parental self-efficacy using the Self-efficacy in the Caregiver Role Test– Modified (Pedersen et al., 1989; Porter and Hsu, 2003), which evaluates parental feelings while taking care of their children.
We also expect that our proposed interventions will improve children's human capital outcomes. For children’s physical health outcomes, we will measure height and weight. To capture children’s development, we will use the Ages and Stages Questionnaire.
We will also measure parents’ well-being using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale, bargaining power, knowledge on child development and maltreatment, and social networks. To measure women’s empowerment, we will rely on the existing body of validated instruments and behavioral games developed and tested by researchers in economics and psychology. We will review and adapt the questions compiled by Glennester, Walsh, and Diaz-Martin (2017). Overall, we will pilot and assess the reliability of the instruments, taking into account the Indonesian context. The survey instruments will also include demographic characteristics following the Indonesian Family Life Survey (Strauss et al, 2016).