Demand for clean energy: LPG in Ghana

Last registered on February 11, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

Demand for clean energy: LPG in Ghana
Initial registration date
February 09, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
February 11, 2021, 11:56 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

UC Santa Barbara

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Columbia University
PI Affiliation
University of Southern California
PI Affiliation
Columbia University

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
How does price and travel cost affect demand for clean energy? We introduce random variation in the price of liquid petroleum gas through household level subsidies that vary in the location where they can be redeemed. We follow households for six months and observe the demand response to subsidies and location. We will combine reduced form estimates with a discrete choice model to assess how the bundled value of a trip contributes to estimates of demand that rely on distance or travel cost to asses willingness to pay. In addition, we examine demand spillovers via social networks.

External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Ghana Health Service, Kintampo Health Research Center, et al. 2021. "Demand for clean energy: LPG in Ghana." AEA RCT Registry. February 11.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details


LPG subsidy: Different subsidy levels are assigned at the household level using blind draws from a bucket. Subsidies can be redeemed at a specified location using vouchers, with up to two vouchers per household per month for a period of six months, with potential reassignment of prices after three months. The subsidy is non-transferrable and applies to a 14.5kg cylinder of LPG.

Distance: Households are assigned to one of four recirculation depots or a filling station where subsidies can be redeemed. The recirculation depots are established in cooperation with an LPG distributor in randomly selection communities chosen from among the study sample. The filling station is based in the commercial hub of the study area (Kintampo). Communities are first assigned to two of the five potential locations, and then households within the community draw from the set of two locations.

The supply depots will mirror a recirculation model of LPG distribution currently being piloted by the National Petroleum Authority of Ghana. The study sample consists of households enrolled in a prior NIH-supported clean energy RCT. All have a well-functioning LPG cookstove and gas cylinder at baseline, either from the previous study or provided at baseline.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The primary outcome, demand for LPG, will be measured by the number of cylinder refills and/or exchanges at the subsidized prices.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
LPG subsidy: Individuals are assigned to a random price subsidy: 0, 5, 35, 65 or 95 percent of the market price.

Distance: Communities are assigned to two locations where individual subsidies can be redeemed (with random assignment within community), either at a recirculation depot in another community or the existing filling station in Kintampo. Individuals within the community are randomly assigned to one of the two locations assigned to their community.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
There will be two main levels of randomization.
1) The community level randomization to two locations for subsidy redemption will be pre-assignment the office by a computer.
2) The individual level randomization to a subsidy level and to a location (out of the set of two) will done in person.

In addition, the location of the four recirculation depots will be randomly assigned among a subset of study communities.
Randomization Unit
Individual level assignment to subsidies and locations
Community level assignment to locations
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Up to 1000 participants in 38 communities (four of which receive depots and one of which was used for piloting).
Sample size: planned number of observations
Up to 1000 participants, with up to 2 voucher redemption opportunities per month over a six month period
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
20% to control, 80% to recirculation depots in 4 different locations.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Kintampo Health Research Centre (KHRC) Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC)
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Columbia University IRB
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials