Citizens against corruption

Last registered on April 16, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

Citizens against corruption
Initial registration date
November 17, 2020

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
November 18, 2020, 10:03 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
April 16, 2024, 4:13 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

University of Bordeaux

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
World Bank

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
This study is about a smartphone App which provides information on administrative processes to citizens in Burkina Faso. The App was designed to ease administrative tasks and shelter citizens against bribery and day-to-day corruption. We will randomize the access to the App within a pool of interested individuals recruited via Facebook and other channel, and will measure outcomes related to the administrative processes conducted by the participants, including bribery paid.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Hilger, Anne and Quentin Stoeffler. 2024. "Citizens against corruption." AEA RCT Registry. April 16.
Sponsors & Partners



Experimental Details


The intervention is the free provision of a smartphone App which includes information on several administrative processes, such as obtaining a national identity card or a driving license, in Burkina Faso. Information includes the location of the relevant administration to conduct a given administrative process, the required documents or paperwork, and the monetary cost of the process. As such, the App is also designed as an instrument to address day-to-day corruption, such as bribery, which is widespread in Burkina Faso. The App is available in French and local languages, and has a voice-responsive version (which does not require literacy). It is provided by the Burkinabe start-up ONE, which developed and distributed the App, with funding from the World Bank. The App was developed as part of a broader anti-corruption initiative (3LC) based on citizen engagement.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
- administrative tasks succeeded (#)
- time to complete administrative tasks (days)
- number of visits to administration per task (#)
- total cost paid to the administration per task
- bribery paid for administrative tasks (0/1)
- total bribery amount for administrative tasks (log, CFA)
- support of other individuals for administrative tasks (#)
- success from other individuals supported in administrative tasks (#)
- bribery paid by these individuals for administrative tasks (0/1)
- total bribery paid by these individuals for administrative tasks (log, CFA)

See pre-analysis plan for a detailed list of outcomes and their construction.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
See pre-analysis plan for a detailed list of outcomes and their construction.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
- administrative tasks started (#)
- distance travelled per task (km)
- total other costs per task (transportation, etc.)
- support from peer for tasks (0/1)
- use of intermediary (0/1)
- initiation of bribery demand (0/1)
- reason for asking bribes
- perceived easiness and confidence during the administrative process (see below)
- bribery paid for other reasons (e.g. for trafic violation)
- time for administrative process for individuals helped with administrative tasks (days)
- total other bribery amount (e.g. for trafic violation) (log, CFA)

See pre-analysis plan for a detailed list of outcomes and their construction.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
- use of intermediary (as individuals receiving bribes: question 4.1k)
- initiation of bribery demand: question 4.1n
- reason for asking bribes: question 4.1o.
- perceived easiness and confidence during the administrative process: perceived on a scale from "very difficult" to "very easy" (question 4.1p) and "not comfortable at all" to "very comfortable" (question 4.1q); see questionnaire attached

See pre-analysis plan for a detailed list of outcomes and their construction.

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Access to the App was randomized at the individual level and the App was provided accordingly by the intervention firm (ONE). Participants were recruited by ONE from several sources. The main source is a Facebook forum which had been animated by ONE on the topic of corruption in Burkina Faso. Facebook group participants, as well as other Facebook users could register for the study via WhatsApp or SMS by providing their name and phone number. ONE also recruited participants among past participants of anti-corruption training that they had conducted among university students, and through a campaign in universities. Interested students could register in the same manner or by writing their contact information on a paper form. Among the pool of participants who answered the baseline survey, the research team selected randomly half of the applicants for receiving the App, while the other half will remain in the control group.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization was conducted in the office by the PI, on a computer, using the baseline survey data.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
There are no clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
1250 individuals in the treatment group, 1250 individuals in the control group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Power calculations indicate a required sample of 2500 to 3000 individuals (half for each of the treatment and control arms) to reach a decrease in processing time of the administrative task, likelihood to pay a bride or average bribery amounts of 0.1 s.d. or 25% approximatively.
Supporting Documents and Materials

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Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Comité d'éthique Institutionnel pour la recherche en sciences de la santé
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents

Pre-analysis plan (v1.0)

MD5: 2f7dab3804cffc266de6156a460faf0d

SHA1: a26ae26b740cf659c824cf4b430190a2c6ae023c

Uploaded At: November 17, 2020

Result-blind article



Uploaded At: April 16, 2024


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials