x

Please fill out this short user survey of only 3 questions in order to help us improve the site. We appreciate your feedback!
The Impact of Descriptive Social Norms on Parental Leave Take-up Among Mothers
Last registered on December 01, 2020

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
The Impact of Descriptive Social Norms on Parental Leave Take-up Among Mothers
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0006838
Initial registration date
December 01, 2020
Last updated
December 01, 2020 1:27 PM EST
Location(s)
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
Linnaeus University
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
Linnaeus University
PI Affiliation
Linnaeus University
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2020-12-03
End date
2021-01-10
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Across the world mothers take the majority and fathers only a small share of parental leave (PL) after individuals become parents. Especially during the first year of a child, mothers spend more time with the child, while fathers continue to work. It is well-documented that this creates gender inequalities in the labor market and affects children’s outcomes, and these effects tend to persist also in the long-term. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors influence this gender difference in responsibility after childbirth.
Potential important factors that can affect the gender difference in parents’ PL plans include to what extent there exist a system for parental allowance (and how it is constructed), gender inequalities in income from work, gender barriers in the labor market, culture and norms (Duvander 2014; Wall and Arnold 2007; Lappegård et al. 2020; Dahl et al. 2014).The current project investigates the role of norms. Norms can be divided into two types (Cialdini et al. 1991). Injunctive social norms are norms about what an individual ought to do. Hence, it is about moral approval (or disapproval) of others. A descriptive social norm is what other people do. In this project, we will conduct a survey experiment to investigate to what extent descriptive social norms – specifically, the number of days other mothers stay home with their children during the first year after childbirth – influence the number of days a particular mother stays home. The rationale for focusing on mothers is that they have received less attention than fathers in the discussion of how to achieve a more gender balanced parental leave take-up (see, e.g., Farre and Gonzalez 2017 and Dahl et al. 2014) although mothers´ behavior also could be important. Norms could play an essential role for mothers and constitute a barrier that hinders mothers from reducing their take-up (which in turn could constrain the father in a couple from increasing his take-up).
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Agerström, Jens, Magnus Carlsson and Asuman Erenel. 2020. "The Impact of Descriptive Social Norms on Parental Leave Take-up Among Mothers." AEA RCT Registry. December 01. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6838-1.0.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
The participants will answer the following question: “If you become a mother, how many days (0-365) would you stay at home taking care of the child during the first year after childbirth?”. Before being presented with the question, the participants will see a norm manipulation (intervention) considering parental leave.
Intervention Start Date
2020-12-03
Intervention End Date
2020-12-10
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
The outcome in the survey experiment is the number of days the participant plans to stay at home taking care of the child during the first year after childbirth.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
The survey experiment will be conducted online. The participants will be young females holding a UK citizenship. They will answer a question regarding their parental leave take-up intentions in case they would get a child. Before being presented with the question, the participants will see the norm manipulation in the experiment.
Experimental Design Details
This survey experiment will be conducted using Prolific (https://www.prolific.co). The participants will be females aged 25-35 holding a UK citizenship. They will answer the following question: “If you become a mother, how many days (0-365) would you stay at home taking care of the child during the first year after childbirth?”. Before being presented with the question, the participants will see the norm manipulation in the experiment, which constitutes different information about how many days other mothers in the UK stay at home taking care of the child during the first year after childbirth. Using a between-subjects design, the participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups:

• Control group: No explicit information about how many days mothers in the UK stay at home taking care of the child during the first year after childbirth.
• Treatment group 1: Information indicating that the number of days is high
• Treatment group 2: Information indicating that the number of days is low

The information given to participants in the high versus low treatment groups is based on a pilot study. In the pilot study, we targeted the same population (N=150) and asked participants “How many days do you think mothers in the UK on average stay at home to take care of the child during the first year (365 days) after childbirth?”. The respondents thought that mothers´ stay at home approximately 236 days on average. We decided to use 290 and 180 as the high and low descriptive norm, respectively. The full material and all survey questions are presented to the participants is found in the appendix.
Randomization Method
Randomization will be done using the Qualtrics survey.
Randomization Unit
Randomization is done at the individual level.
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
1,000 participants
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,000 participants
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Approximately one third of the sample will be in each treatment arm.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
We have calculated the statistical power of detecting H1 and H2 (the main hypotheses) simultaneously as outlined at the EGAP webpage (http://egap.org/content/power-analysis-simulations-r). Based on the pilot study described above, we assume that women plan to stay home 230 days on average with a child during the first year after childbirth. We assume that the standard deviation is 60. Next, we assume that the effect of the high and low treatments is -23 and +23, respectively, which corresponds to a 10% decrease/increase in the number of days that women plan to stay home with their child the first year after childbirth. Given these assumptions, the power simulations show that we need about 450 respondents to have 80% percent power to detect that two main treatment effects simultaneously. In the end, we decided to sample 1,000 respondents.
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan
Analysis Plan Documents
Pre-Analysis Plan: The impact of descriptive social norms on parental leave take-up among mothers

MD5: c403ff84e9e0c37e8030d8df56ded2ab

SHA1: 8529bc8de1bc37cfc69956145331b72e8f5fe96b

Uploaded At: December 01, 2020

Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS